Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis.
1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor. (+info)
The distribution of neurons expressing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn.
The superficial dorsal horn is a major site of termination of nociceptive primary afferents. Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in this region is mediated mainly by release of glutamate onto postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptors. NMDA receptors are known to be Ca2+-permeable and to provide synaptically localized Ca2+ signals that mediate short-term and long-term changes in synaptic strength. Less well known is a subpopulation of AMPA receptors that is Ca2+-permeable and has been shown to be synaptically localized on dorsal horn neurons in culture (Gu et al., 1996) and expressed by dorsal horn neurons in situ (Nagy et al., 1994; Engelman et al., 1997). We used kainate-induced cobalt uptake as a functional marker of neurons expressing Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and combined this with markers of nociceptive primary afferents in the postnatal rat dorsal horn. We have shown that cobalt-positive neurons are located in lamina I and outer lamina II, a region strongly innervated by nociceptors. These cobalt-positive neurons colocalize with afferents labeled by LD2, and with the most dorsal region of capsaicin-sensitive and IB4- and LA4-positive afferents. In contrast, inner lamina II has a sparser distribution of cobalt-positive neurons. Some lamina I neurons expressing the NK1 receptor, the receptor for substance P, are also cobalt positive. These neurons are likely to be projection neurons in the nociceptive pathway. On the basis of all of these observations, we propose that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors are localized to mediate transmission of nociceptive information. (+info)
Real-time visualization of the cellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin 2 during homologous desensitization of the substance P receptor.
The substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a key role in pain regulation. The SPR desensitizes in the continued presence of agonist, presumably via mechanisms that implicate G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and beta-arrestins. The temporal relationship of these proposed biochemical events has never been established for any GPCR other than rhodopsin beyond the resolution provided by biochemical assays. We investigate the real-time activation and desensitization of the human SPR in live HEK293 cells using green fluorescent protein conjugates of protein kinase C, GRK2, and beta-arrestin 2. The translocation of protein kinase C betaII-green fluorescent protein to and from the plasma membrane in response to substance P indicates that the human SPR becomes activated within seconds of agonist exposure, and the response desensitizes within 30 s. This desensitization process coincides with a redistribution of GRK2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, followed by a robust redistribution of beta-arrestin 2 and a profound change in cell morphology that occurs after 1 min of SPR stimulation. These data establish a role for GRKs and beta-arrestins in homologous desensitization of the SPR and provide the first visual and temporal resolution of the sequence of events underlying homologous desensitization of a GPCR in living cells. (+info)
Primary afferent fibers that contribute to increased substance P receptor internalization in the spinal cord after injury.
Upon noxious stimulation, substance P (SP) is released from primary afferent fibers into the spinal cord where it interacts with the SP receptor (SPR). The SPR is located throughout the dorsal horn and undergoes endocytosis after agonist binding, which provides a spatial image of SPR-containing neurons that undergo agonist interaction. Under normal conditions, SPR internalization occurs only in SPR+ cell bodies and dendrites in the superficial dorsal horn after noxious stimulation. After nerve transection and inflammation, SPR immunoreactivity increases, and both noxious as well as nonnoxious stimulation produces SPR internalization in the superficial and deep dorsal horn. We investigated the primary afferent fibers that contribute to enhanced SPR internalization in the spinal cord after nerve transection and inflammation. Internalization evoked by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve was examined in untreated animals, at 14 days after sciatic nerve transection or sham surgery and at 3 days after hindpaw inflammation. Electrical stimulation was delivered at intensities to excite Abeta fibers only, Abeta and Adelta fibers or A and C fibers as determined by the compound action potential recorded from the tibial nerve. Electrical stimuli were delivered at a constant rate of 10 Hz for a duration of 5 min. Transection of the sciatic nerve and inflammation produced a 33.7 and 32.5% increase in SPR and immunoreactivity in lamina I, respectively. Under normal conditions, stimulation of Adelta or C fibers evoked internalization that was confined to the superficial dorsal horn. After transection or inflammation, there was a 20-24% increase in the proportion of SPR+ lamina I neurons that exhibited internalization evoked by stimulation of Adelta fibers. The proportion of lamina I SPR+ neurons that exhibited internalization after stimulation of C-fibers was not altered by transection or inflammation because this was nearly maximal under normal conditions. Moreover, electrical stimulation sufficient to excite C fibers evoked SPR internalization in 22% of SPR+ lamina III neurons after nerve transection and in 32-36% of SPR+ neurons in lamina III and IV after inflammation. Stimulation of Abeta fibers alone never evoked internalization in the superficial or deep dorsal horn. These results indicate that activation of small-caliber afferent fibers contributes to the enhanced SPR internalization in the spinal cord after nerve transection and inflammation and suggest that recruitment of neurons that possess the SPR contributes to hyperalgesia. (+info)
GABAergic neurons that contain neuropeptide Y selectively target cells with the neurokinin 1 receptor in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is contained in a population of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and, when administered intrathecally, can produce analgesia. We previously identified a strong monosynaptic link between substance P-containing primary afferents and cells in lamina III or IV with the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. Because some of these cells belong to the spinothalamic tract, they are likely to have an important role in pain mechanisms. In this study, we used confocal microscopy to examine the input to lamina III/IV NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons from NPY-containing axons. All of the cells studied received a dense innervation from NPY-immunoreactive axons, and electron microscopy revealed that synapses were often present at points of contact. Most NPY-immunoreactive boutons were also GABAergic, which supports the suggestion that they are derived from local neurons. The association between NPY-containing axons and NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons was specific, because postsynaptic dorsal column neurons (which were located in laminae III-V but did not possess NK1 receptors) and lamina I neurons with the NK1 receptor received significantly fewer contacts from NPY-immunoreactive axons. In addition, the NK1 receptor-immunoreactive lamina III/IV cells received few contacts from nitric oxide synthase-containing axons (which belong to a different population of GABAergic dorsal horn neurons). The NPY-containing axons appeared to be targeted to the NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons themselves rather than to their associated substance P-immunoreactive inputs. The dense innervation of these cells by NPY-containing axons suggests that they may possess receptors for NPY and that activation of these receptors may contribute to NPY-mediated analgesia. (+info)
Decreased vascular permeability response to substance P in airways of genetically hypertensive rats.
1. The inbred genetically hypertensive strain (GH) of the Otago Wistar rat possesses more sensory neurons containing the neuropeptide substance P (SP) than does its genetically related control normotensive strain. 2. As SP contributes to airway inflammation by increasing microvascular permeability, we assessed the extravasation of Evans Blue dye in trachea and main bronchus of anaesthetized GH and control rats, in the presence of endogenous (capsaicin-liberated) or exogenous SP. 3. Following intravenous administration of either capsaicin (75 microg kg(-1)) or SP (3.3 nmol kg(-1)), extravasation of Evans Blue in airways from GH rats was only about 60% of that in airways of control rats. This difference was not gender-specific and responses to capsaicin were abolished by pretreatment with a selective NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140333 (360 nmol kg(-1)). 4. By contrast, the extravasation of dye caused by intravenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.5 micromol kg(-1)) was similar in magnitude in both GH and control strains. 5. Falls in systemic arterial blood pressure in response to exogenous SP (0.1-3 nmol kg(-1)) or acetylcholine (0.2-2 nmol kg(-1)) were also very similar between strains, but those in response to capsaicin (75 microg kg(-1)) in the GH rats were about double those in control rats. The hypotensive response to SP was abolished by SR 140333, but that to capsaicin was unaffected. 6. Our results indicate that the increased peripheral innervation density by SP-nerves in GH rats is accompanied by reduced inflammatory responses to SP. This does not involve decreased vasodilator potency of SP and is therefore probably related to altered endothelial responsiveness. (+info)
Central injections of capsaicin cause antidiuresis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in rat hypothalamus and vasopressin release.
Intracerebroventricular injections of capsaicin at 100-500 nmol elicited dose-dependent decreases in urine outflow volume in anesthetized, hydrated rats. The capsaicin (500 nmol)-induced antidiuresis was inhibited by pretreatment with CP96345 (30 nmol, a neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist), but not by that with phenoxybenzamine (20 nmol, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist), timolol (100 nmol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) or atropine (300 nmol, a muscarinic antagonist) into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). Intravenous injections of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (50 microg/kg, a vasopressin-receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidiuresis. In intra-SON microdialysis experiments, acetylcholine concentration in the perfusate of the capsaicin-injected rats was not different from that of the vehicle-injected rats. These findings suggested that capsaicin stimulated substance P release in the SON and caused the antidiuresis as a result of the increased release of vasopressin into the circulation from the neurohypophysis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in the SON. (+info)
NK-1 receptor immunoreactivity in distinct morphological types of lamina I neurons of the primate spinal cord.
In cat and monkey, lamina I cells can be classified into three basic morphological types (fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar), and recent intracellular labeling evidence in the cat indicates that fusiform and multipolar lamina I cells are two different types of nociceptive cells, whereas pyramidal cells are innocuous thermoreceptive-specific. Because earlier observations indicated that only nociceptive dorsal horn neurons respond to substance P (SP), we examined which morphological types of lamina I neurons express receptors for SP (NK-1r). We categorized NK-1r-immunoreactive (IR) lamina I neurons in serial horizontal sections from the cervical and lumbar enlargements of four monkeys. Consistent results were obtained by two independent teams of observers. Nearly all NK-1r-IR cells were fusiform (42%) or multipolar (43%), but only 6% were pyramidal (with 9% unclassified). We obtained similar findings in three monkeys in which we used double-labeling immunocytochemistry to identify NK-1r-IR and spinothalamic lamina I neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit b from the thalamus; most NK-1r-IR lamina I spinothalamic neurons were fusiform (48%) or multipolar (33%), and only 10% were pyramidal. In contrast, most (approximately 75%) pyramidal and some (approximately 25%) fusiform and multipolar lamina I spinothalamic neurons did not display NK-1r immunoreactivity. These data indicate that most fusiform and multipolar lamina I neurons in the monkey can express NK-1r, consistent with the idea that both types are nociceptive, whereas only a small proportion of lamina I pyramidal cells express this receptor, consistent with the previous finding that they are non-nociceptive. However, these findings also indicate that not all nociceptive lamina I neurons express receptors for SP. (+info)