Cutting edge: suppression of T cell chemotaxis by sphingosine 1-phosphate.
Murine CD4 and CD8 T cells express predominantly types 1 and 4 sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) G protein-coupled receptors (designated S1P1 and S1P4 or previously endothelial differentiation gene-encoded 1 and 6) for S1P, which has a normal plasma concentration of 0.1-1 microM. S1P now is shown to enhance chemotaxis of CD4 T cells to CCL-21 and CCL-5 by up to 2.5-fold at 10 nM to 0.1 microM, whereas 0.3-3 microM S1P inhibits this chemotaxis by up to 70%. Chemotaxis of S1P(1), but not S1P(4), transfectants to CXCL1 and CXCL4 was similarly affected by S1P. Activation of CD4 T cells, which decreases S1P receptor expression, suppressed effects of S1P on chemotaxis. Pretreatment of labeled CD4 T cells with S1P before reintroduction into mice inhibited by a maximum of 75% their migration into chemokine-challenged s.c. air pouches. The S1P-S1P(1) receptor axis thus controls recruitment of naive T cells by maintaining their response threshold to diverse lymphotactic factors. (+info)
Ligand-dependent inhibition of B16 melanoma cell migration and invasion via endogenous S1P2 G protein-coupled receptor. Requirement of inhibition of cellular RAC activity.
We investigated mechanisms for inhibition of B16 melanoma cell migration and invasion by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is the ligand for the Edg family G protein-coupled receptors and also implicated as an intracellular second messenger. S1P, dihydro-S1P, and sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibited B16 cell migration and invasion with the relative potencies expected as S1P2 receptor agonists. The S1P2-selective antagonist JTE013 completely abolished the responses to these agonists. In addition, JTE013 abrogated the inhibition by sphingosine, which is the S1P precursor but not an agonist for S1P receptors, indicating that the sphingosine effects were mediated via S1P2 stimulation, most likely by S1P that was converted from sphingosine. S1P induced inhibition and activation, respectively, of Rac and RhoA in B16 cells, which were abrogated by JTE013. Adenovirus-mediated expression of N17Rac mimicked S1P inhibition of migration, whereas C3 toxin pretreatment, but not Rho kinase inhibitors, reversed the S1P inhibition. Overexpression of S1P2 sensitized, and that of either S1P1 or S1P3 desensitized, B16 cells to S1P inhibition of Rac and migration. In JTE013-pretreated, S1P3-overexpressing B16 cells, S1P stimulated cellular RhoA but failed to inhibit either Rac or migration, indicating that RhoA stimulation itself is not sufficient for inhibition of migration. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenously expressed S1P2 negatively regulates cell motility and invasion through ligand-dependent reciprocal regulation of cellular Rac and RhoA activities. In the presence of JTE013, S1P instead stimulated Rac and migration in B16 cells that overexpress either S1P1 or S1P3, unveiling counteractions between S1P2 and S1P1 or S1P3 chemotactic receptor. (+info)
Identification of a novel inhibitor of breast cell growth that is down-regulated by estrogens and decreased in breast tumors.
Lifetime exposure to estrogens is a major risk factor in breast cancer, but the mechanism for this action is not fully defined. To better determine this mechanism, the activation domain of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha was used in yeast two-hybrid screenings. These screenings resulted in the identification of a novel antiproliferative protein, estrogen down-regulated gene 1 (EDG1), of which the mRNA and protein were shown to be down-regulated directly by estrogens. Our studies additionally suggested an important role for EDG1 in ER alpha-mediated breast cancer development. Analysis of 43 invasive breast cancer samples and 40 adjacent normal breast samples demonstrated EDG1 protein levels to be significantly higher in normal breast epithelial tissue as compared with breast epithelial tumor tissue. EDG1 expression levels were also correlated with the proliferation activity and ER alpha status of the tumors to examine the prognostic value of EDG1 in invasive breast tumors. EDG1 expression was more disassociated from proliferative activity as compared with ER alpha expression in tumor cells. A growth regulatory function for EDG1 is additionally indicated by studies wherein overexpression of EDG1 protein in breast cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, inhibiting EDG1 expression in breast cells resulted in increased breast cell growth. Thus, we have identified a novel growth inhibitor that is down-regulated by estrogens and colocalizes with ER alpha in breast tissue. These studies support a role for EDG1 in breast cancer. (+info)
Truncation of the N-terminal ectodomain has implications in the N-glycosylation and transport to the cell surface of Edg-1/S1P1 receptor.
The endothelial cell-expressed sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors Edg-1/S1P1 and Edg-3/S1P3 have been implicated in various physiological events such as the regulation of angiogenesis. Since there is an excess of a ligand constitutively in blood, these receptors may have some mechanism(s) avoiding overstimulation. In this study, we found that the N-terminal ectodomains of Edg-1/S1P1 and Edg-3/S1P3 were truncated in overexpressing cells. The truncated form of Edg-1/S1P1 expressed on the cell surface had undergone complex-type oligosaccharide modification at the Golgi. A deletion mutant lacking the N-terminal processing domain of Edg-1/S1P1 accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum, and was not expressed on the cell surface. When a basic amino acid residue was introduced at the cleavage site of Edg-1/S1P1, the molecular weight of the glycosylated protein was greater in the mutant compared to the wild type, due to the bound oligosaccharide. These results demonstrated that the structure of the N-terminal ectodomain of Edg-1/S1P1 affects both its transport to the cell surface and the N-glycosylation process. Ectodomain shedding of many membrane proteins has been implicated in various diseases. Therefore, N-terminal processing of Edg-1/S1P1 and Edg-3/S1P3 might play roles in endothelial cell functions. (+info)
FTY720: sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 in the control of lymphocyte egress and endothelial barrier function.
The novel immunomodulator FTY720 is effective in experimental models of transplantation and autoimmunity, and is currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials for prevention of kidney graft rejection. In contrast to conventional immunosuppressants, FTY720 does not impair T- and B-cell activation, proliferation and effector function, but interferes with cell traffic between lymphoid organs and blood. The molecular basis for the mode of action of the drug has only recently been established. FTY720, after phosphorylation, acts as a high-affinity agonist at the G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P(1)) on thymocytes and lymphocytes, thereby inducing aberrant internalization of the receptor. This renders the cells unresponsive to the serum lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), depriving them from an obligatory signal to egress from lymphoid organs. As a consequence, lymphocytes are unable to recirculate to peripheral inflammatory tissues and graft sites but remain functional in the lymphoid compartment. In addition to the effects on lymphocyte recirculation, the drug acts on endothelial cells and preserves vascular integrity by enhancing adherens junction assembly and endothelial barrier function. The available data establish S1P(1) as a key target for FTY720, and further point to therapeutically relevant effects of the drug on lymphocytes and vascular endothelium. (+info)
Pharmacological characterization of human S1P4 using a novel radioligand, [4,5-3H]-dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that affects a variety of cellular processes through both its actions as a second messenger and via activation of a family of G protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1-5)). The study of S1P receptor pharmacology, particularly S1P(4), has been hindered by the lack of high-affinity radioligands with good specific activity. The studies presented herein characterize [(3)H]DH-S1P as a stable, high-affinity radioligand for S1P(4) pharmacology. Using a transfected Ba/F3 cell line selected for high hS1P(4) surface expression, we compared the consequences of different cellular backgrounds and commercial sources of sphingophospholipids on S1P(4) characterization. The development and subsequent use of the assay described has enabled us to extensively and definitively characterize the pharmacology of the human S1P(4) receptor. (+info)
The immune modulator FTY720 targets sphingosine-kinase-dependent migration of human monocytes in response to amyloid beta-protein and its precursor.
Accumulation of inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes in Alzheimer's senile plaques, a hallmark of the innate immune response to beta-amyloid fibrils, can initiate and propagate neurodegeneration characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Phagocytes migrate toward amyloid beta-protein involving formyl peptide receptor like-1-dependent signaling. Using human peripheral blood monocytes in Boyden chamber micropore filter assays, we show that the amyloid beta-protein- and amyloid beta-precursor protein-induced migration was abrogated by dimethylsphingosine, a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. Amyloid beta-protein stimulated in monocytes the gene expression for sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 2 and 5, but not 1, 3, and 4. FTY720 that acts as a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist after endogenous phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase, as well as various neuropeptides that are known to be monocyte chemoattractants, dose-dependently inhibited amyloid beta-protein-induced migration. These data demonstrate that the migratory effects of beta-amyloid in human monocytes involve spingosine-1-phosphate signaling. Whereas endogenous neuropeptides may arrest and activate monocytes at sites of high beta-amyloid concentrations, interference with the amyloid beta-protein-dependent sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway in monocytes by FTY720, a novel immunomodulatory drug, suggests that FTY720 may be efficacious in beta-amyloid-related inflammatory diseases. (+info)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibits migration of RBL-2H3 cells via S1P2: cross-talk between platelets and mast cells.
To analyze the involvement in allergic reactions of platelets and sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph-1-P), a lysophospholipid mediator released from activated platelets, the effects of Sph-1-P and a supernatant prepared from activated platelets on mast cell line RBL-2H3 were examined. Sph-1-P strongly inhibited the migration of both non-stimulated and fibronectin-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, which was reversed by JTE-013, a specific antagonist of G protein-coupled Sph-1-P receptor S1P(2); S1P(2) was confirmed to be expressed in these cells. A similar anti-motility effect of Sph-1-P was observed in a phagokinetic assay. Consistent with these results, treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with Sph-1-P resulted in a rounded cell morphology, which was blocked by JTE-013. Under the present conditions, Sph-1-P failed to induce intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization or histamine degranulation, responses postulated to be elicited by intracellular Sph-1-P. Importantly, the Sph-1-P effect, i.e., the regulation of RBL-2H3 cell motility, was mimicked by the supernatant (both with and without boiling) prepared from activated platelets, and this effect of the supernatant was also blocked by JTE-013. Our results suggest that the motility of mast cells can be regulated by Sph-1-P and also platelets (which release Sph-1-P), via cell surface receptor S1P(2) (not through intracellular Sph-1-P actions, postulated previously in the same cells). (+info)