Effects of lipid mediator antagonists on predominant mediator-controlled asthmatic reactions in passively sensitized guinea pigs.
The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in guinea pig models of aspects of bronchial asthma was investigated. In a novel antigen (BSA)-induced asthmatic model using passively sensitized guinea pigs, pretreatment with varying doses of indomethacin controlled the ratio of followed lipid mediators, LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) and TXB(2), in lungs of challenged guinea pigs. The predominant mediator in indomethacin-untreated asthma was TXA(2), and complete inhibition of cyclooxygenase by i.v. injection of 5-mg/kg indomethacin-induced cys-LTs mainly mediated asthmatic response. Furthermore, a 1-mg/kg indomethacin dose induced an asthmatic state where both cys-LTs and TXA(2) equally participated. Either LTD(4) or TXA(2) receptor antagonists given alone inhibited the asthmatic response in conditions where the corresponding mediator plays a predominant role. The combination of LTD(4) and TXA(2) receptor antagonists exhibited significant effects irrespective of the condition used. Under conditions where both mediators equally participate, a combination of both receptor antagonists showed additive inhibition. YM158, a newly synthesized and orally active dual antagonist for LTD(4) and TXA(2) receptors, showed the same antiasthmatic effect as a combinated LTD(4) receptor antagonist and a TXA(2) receptor antagonist mixture. Therefore, broad-acting compounds such as YM158 are expected to have antiasthmatic efficacies in a broader class of asthmatic patients than single-acting drugs. (+info)
Identification, molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor.
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, in particular asthma, for which the CysLT receptor antagonists pranlukast, zafirlukast, and montelukast, have been introduced recently as novel therapeutics. Here we report on the molecular cloning, expression, localization, and pharmacological characterization of a CysLT receptor (CysLTR), which was identified by ligand fishing of orphan seven-transmembrane-spanning, G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells responded selectively to the individual CysLTs, LTC(4), LTD(4), or LTE(4), with a calcium mobilization response; the rank order potency was LTD(4) (EC(50) = 2.5 nM) > LTC(4) (EC(50) = 24 nM) > LTE(4) (EC(50) = 240 nM). Evidence was provided that LTE(4) is a partial agonist at this receptor. [(3)H]LTD(4) binding and LTD(4)-induced calcium mobilization in HEK-293 cells expressing the CysLT receptor were potently inhibited by the structurally distinct CysLTR antagonists pranlukast, montelukast, zafirlukast, and pobilukast; the rank order potency was pranlukast = zafirlukast > montelukast > pobilukast. LTD(4)-induced calcium mobilization in HEK-293 cells expressing the CysLT receptor was not affected by pertussis toxin, and the signal appears to be the result of the release from intracellular stores. Localization studies indicate the expression of this receptor in several tissues, including human lung, human bronchus, and human peripheral blood leukocytes. The discovery of this receptor, which has characteristics of the purported CysLT(1) receptor subtype, should assist in the elucidation of the pathophysiological roles of the CysLTs and in the identification of additional receptor subtypes. (+info)
A kinetic binding study to evaluate the pharmacological profile of a specific leukotriene C(4) binding site not coupled to contraction in human lung parenchyma.
We report the identification of a novel pharmacological profile for the leukotriene (LT)C(4) binding site we previously identified in human lung parenchyma (HLP). We used a series of classic cysteinyl-LT (CysLT)(1) receptor antagonists belonging to different chemical classes and the dual CysLT(1)-CysLT(2) antagonist BAY u9773 for both binding and functional studies. Because the presence of (S)-decyl-glutathione interfered with cysteinyl-LT binding, with a kinetic protocol we avoided the use of this compound. By means of heterologous dissociation time courses, we demonstrated that zafirlukast, iralukast, and BAY u9773 selectively competed only for (3)H-LTD(4) binding sites, whereas pobilukast, pranlukast, and CGP 57698 dissociated both (3)H-LTC(4) and (3)H-LTD(4) from their binding sites. Thus, with binding studies, we have been able to identify a pharmacological profile for LTC(4) distinct from that of LTD(4) receptor (CysLT(1)) in HLP. On the contrary, in functional studies, all of the classic antagonists tested were able to revert both LTC(4)- and LTD(4)-induced contractions of isolated HLP strips. Thus, LTD(4) and LTC(4) contract isolated HLP strips through the same CysLT(1) receptor. The results of kinetic binding studies, coupled to a sophisticated data analysis, confirm our hypothesis that HLP membranes contain two cysteinyl-LT high-affinity binding sites with different pharmacological profiles. In functional studies, however, LTD(4)- and LTC(4)-induced contractions are mediated by the same CysLT(1) receptor. In conclusion, the specific LTC(4) high-affinity binding site cannot be classified as one of the officially recognized CysLT receptors, and it is not implicated in LTC(4)-induced HLP strip contractions. (+info)
Characterization of the human cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor.
The contractile and inflammatory actions of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), are thought to be mediated through at least two distinct but related CysLT G protein-coupled receptors. The human CysLT(1) receptor has been recently cloned and characterized. We describe here the cloning and characterization of the second cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, CysLT(2), a 346-amino acid protein with 38% amino acid identity to the CysLT(1) receptor. The recombinant human CysLT(2) receptor was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293T cells and shown to couple to elevation of intracellular calcium when activated by LTC(4), LTD(4), or LTE(4). Analyses of radiolabeled LTD(4) binding to the recombinant CysLT(2) receptor demonstrated high affinity binding and a rank order of potency for competition of LTC(4) = LTD(4) LTE(4). In contrast to the dual CysLT(1)/CysLT(2) antagonist, BAY u9773, the CysLT(1) receptor-selective antagonists MK-571, montelukast (Singulair(TM)), zafirlukast (Accolate(TM)), and pranlukast (Onon(TM)) exhibited low potency in competition for LTD(4) binding and as antagonists of CysLT(2) receptor signaling. CysLT(2) receptor mRNA was detected in lung macrophages and airway smooth muscle, cardiac Purkinje cells, adrenal medulla cells, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain, and the receptor gene was mapped to chromosome 13q14, a region linked to atopic asthma. (+info)
Lipoxin A4 antagonizes the mitogenic effects of leukotriene D4 in human renal mesangial cells. Differential activation of MAP kinases through distinct receptors.
The lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids leukotrienes and lipoxins are well defined regulators of hemeodynamics and leukocyte recruitment in inflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a novel bioaction of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), namely inhibition of leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4))-induced human renal mesangial cell proliferation, and investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved. LXA(4) blocked LTD(4)-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in parallel to inhibition of LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Screening of a human mesangial cell cDNA library revealed expression of the recently described cys-leukotriene(1)/LTD(4) receptor. LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation required both extracellular-related signal regulated kinase (erk) and PI 3-kinase activation and may involve platelet-derived growth factor receptor transactivation. LTD(4)-stimulated the MAP kinases erk and p38 via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive pathway dependent on PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C activation. On screening a cDNA library, mesangial cells were found to express the previously described LXA(4) receptor. In contrast to LTD(4), LXA(4) showed differential activation of erk and p38. LXA(4) activation of erk was insensitive to PTX and PI 3-kinase inhibition, whereas LXA(4) activation of p38 was sensitive to PTX and could be blocked by the LTD(4) receptor antagonist SKF 104353. These data suggest that LXA(4) stimulation of the MAP kinase superfamily involves two distinct receptors: one shared with LTD(4) and coupled to a PTX-sensitive G protein (G(i)) and a second coupled via an alternative G protein, such as G(q) or G(12), to erk activation. These data expand on the spectrum of LXA(4) bioactions within an inflammatory milieu. (+info)
Effect of YM158, a dual lipid mediator antagonist, on immediate and late asthmatic responses, and on airway hyper-responsiveness in guinea pigs.
The effects of lipid mediator antagonists: the LTD4-receptor antagonist pranlukast, the TXA2-receptor antagonist seratrodast, and the novel dual LTD4- and TXA2-receptor antagonist YM158 (3-[(4-tert-butylthiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-5'-[3-(4-chlorobenzenesu lfonyl) propyl]-2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethoxy)benzanilide monosodium salt monohydrate) were investigated in animals exhibiting immediate asthmatic response (IAR), late asthmatic response (LAR) and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Antigen-induced LAR and AfR are inhibited by orally administered pranlukast (30, 100 mg/kg) and seratrodast (3, 10 mg/kg). YM158 (30 mg/kg), orally administered before or after IAR induction, also inhibited both LAR and AHR. However, while the inhibitory effects of pranlukast and seratrodast on IAR were marginal, the effects of YM158 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) were dose-dependent, probably due to its multiple sites of action. Additionally, orally administered YM158 (30 mg/kg) inhibited ozone-induced AHR in guinea pigs. Thus, an antagonist that inhibits several lipid mediators might exhibit greater efficacy in treating asthmatic responses than antagonists with a single site of action. Therefore, YM158 shows great promise as a drug that will be able to treat bronchial asthma and related disorders more potently than currently used single-pathway inhibitors. (+info)
IL-5 up-regulates cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor expression in HL-60 cells differentiated into eosinophils.
The cysteinyl leukotrienes, leukotriene (LT) C(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including asthma. The human LTD(4) receptor, CysLT(1)R, was recently cloned and characterized. We had previously shown that HL-60 cells differentiated toward the eosinophilic lineage (HL-60/eos) developed specific functional LTD(4) receptors. The present work was undertaken to study the potential modulation of CysLT(1)R expression in HL-60/eos by IL-5, an important regulator of eosinophil function. Here, we report that IL-5 rapidly up-regulates CysLT(1)R mRNA expression, with consequently enhanced CysLT(1)R protein expression and function in HL-60/eos. CysLT(1)R mRNA expression was augmented 2- to 15-fold following treatment with IL-5 (1-20 ng/ml). The effect was seen after 2 h, was maximal by 4 h, and maintained at 8 h. Although CysLT(1)R mRNA was constitutively expressed in undifferentiated HL-60 cells, its expression was not modulated by IL-5 in the absence of differentiation. Differentiated HL-60/eos cells pretreated with IL-5 (10 ng/ml) for 24 h showed enhanced CysLT(1)R expression on the cell surface, as assessed by flow cytometry using a polyclonal anti-CysLT(1)R Ab. They also showed enhanced responsiveness to LTD(4), but not to LTB(4) or platelet-activating factor, in terms of Ca(2+) mobilization, and augmented the chemotactic response to LTD(4). Our findings suggest a possible mechanism by which IL-5 can modulate eosinophil functions and particularly their responsiveness to LTD(4), and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of a second human cysteinyl leukotriene receptor: discovery of a subtype selective agonist.
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent biological mediators in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, in particular of airway obstruction in asthma. Pharmacological studies have suggested the existence of at least two types of CysLT receptors, designated CysLT(1) and CysLT(2). The CysLT(1) receptor has been cloned recently. Here we report the molecular cloning, expression, localization, and functional characterization of a human G protein-coupled receptor that has the expected characteristics of a CysLT(2) receptor. This new receptor is selectively activated by nanomolar concentrations of CysLTs with a rank order potency of LTC(4) = LTD(4) >> LTE(4). The leukotriene analog BAY u9773, reported to be a dual CysLT(1)/CysLT(2) antagonist, was found to be an antagonist at CysLT(1) sites but acted as a partial agonist at this new receptor. The structurally different CysLT(1) receptor-selective antagonists zafirlukast, montelukast, and MK-571 did not inhibit the agonist-mediated calcium mobilization of CysLT(2) receptors at physiological concentrations. Localization studies indicate highest expression of CysLT(2) receptors in adrenal glands, heart, and placenta; moderate levels in spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes, and lymph nodes; and low levels in the central nervous system and pituitary. The human CysLT(2) receptor gene is located on chromosome 13q14.12-21.1. The new receptor exhibits all characteristics of the thus far poorly defined CysLT(2) receptor. Moreover, we have identified BAY u9773 as a CysLT(2) selective agonist, which could prove to be of immediate use in understanding the functional roles of the CysLT(2) receptor. (+info)