(1/554) Leukotriene binding, signaling, and analysis of HIV coreceptor function in mouse and human leukotriene B4 receptor-transfected cells.
The mouse leukotriene B4 receptor (m-BLTR) gene was cloned. Membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing m-BLTR demonstrated a high affinity and specific binding for leukotriene B4 (LTB4, Kd = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM). In competition binding experiments, LTB4 was the most potent competitor (Ki = 0.23 +/- 0.05 nM) followed by 20-hydroxy-LTB4 (Ki = 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM) and by 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 and LTD4 (Ki > 1 microM). In stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, LTB4 inhibited forskolin-activated cAMP production and induced an increase of intracellular calcium, suggesting that this receptor is coupled to Gi- and Go-like proteins. In Xenopus laevis melanophores transiently expressing m-BLTR, LTB4 induced the aggregation of pigment granules, confirming the inhibition of cAMP production induced by LTB4. BLT receptors share significant sequence homology with chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) that act as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptors. However, among the 16 HIV/SIV strains tested, the human BLT receptor did not act as a coreceptor for virus entry into CD4-expressing cells based on infection and cell-cell fusion assays. In 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice, the absence of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis did not detectably alter m-BLT receptor binding in membranes obtained from glycogen-elicited neutrophils. Isolation of the m-BLTR gene will form the basis of future experiments to elucidate the selective role of LTB4, as opposed to cysteinyl-leukotrienes, in murine models of inflammation. (+info)
(2/554) Cofactors for human immunodeficiency virus entry into primary macrophages.
Macrophages are permissive for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates that use CCR5 for entry but are resistant to CXCR-4-dependent T cell-tropic prototype strains. M-tropic variants are critical for HIV-1 transmission, and persons who are homozygous for an inactivating mutation of CCR5 are resistant to HIV-1 in vivo. In vitro, their macrophages and lymphocytes are resistant to M-tropic strains that depend on CCR5. It is shown that CCR5-deficient macrophages are permissive for a dual-tropic isolate, 89.6, that uses CCR5, CXCR-4, and other cofactors. Entry by 89.6 into CCR5-deficient macrophages was blocked by the CXCR-4 ligand SDF and by an anti-CXCR-4 antibody. Immunoflorescence staining and reverse transcription PCR confirmed macrophage CXCR-4 expression. Thus, CXCR-4 on macrophages mediates entry of certain dual-tropic but not T cell-tropic isolates. Therefore, HIV-1 strains differ in how they utilize chemokine receptors as cofactors for entry, and the ability of a chemokine receptor to facilitate entry depends on the cell in which it is expressed. (+info)
(3/554) Molecular uncoupling of fractalkine-mediated cell adhesion and signal transduction. Rapid flow arrest of CX3CR1-expressing cells is independent of G-protein activation.
Fractalkine is a novel multidomain protein expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. Cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 adhere to fractalkine with high affinity, but it is not known if adherence requires G-protein activation and signal transduction. To investigate the cell adhesion properties of fractalkine, we created mutated forms of CX3CR1 that have little or no ability to transduce intracellular signals. Cells expressing signaling-incompetent forms of CX3CR1 bound rapidly and with high affinity to immobilized fractalkine in both static and flow assays. Video microscopy revealed that CX3CR1-expressing cells bound more rapidly to fractalkine than to VCAM-1 (60 versus 190 ms). Unlike VCAM-1, fractalkine did not mediate cell rolling, and after capture on fractalkine, cells did not dislodge. Finally, soluble fractalkine induced intracellular calcium fluxes and chemotaxis, but it did not activate integrins. Taken together these data provide strong evidence that CX3CR1, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor, mediates robust cell adhesion to fractalkine in the absence of G-protein activation and suggest a novel role for this receptor as an adhesion molecule. (+info)
(4/554) CD26/dipeptidyl-peptidase IV down-regulates the eosinophil chemotactic potency, but not the anti-HIV activity of human eotaxin by affecting its interaction with CC chemokine receptor 3.
Chemokines attract and activate distinct sets of leukocytes. The CC chemokine eotaxin has been characterized as an important mediator in allergic reactions because it selectively attracts eosinophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and basophils. Human eotaxin has a penultimate proline, indicating that it might be a substrate for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26/DPP IV). In this study we demonstrate that eotaxin is efficiently cleaved by CD26/DPP IV and that the NH2-terminal truncation affects its biological activity. CD26/DPP IV-truncated eotaxin(3-74) showed reduced chemotactic activity for eosinophils and impaired binding and signaling properties through the CC chemokine receptor 3. Moreover, eotaxin(3-74) desensitized calcium signaling and inhibited chemotaxis toward intact eotaxin. In addition, HIV-2 infection of CC chemokine receptor 3-transfected cells was inhibited to a similar extent by eotaxin and eotaxin(3-74). Thus, CD26/DPP IV differently regulates the chemotactic and antiviral potencies of eotaxin by the removal of two NH2-terminal residues. This physiological processing may be an important down-regulatory mechanism, limiting eotaxin-mediated inflammatory responses. (+info)
(5/554) Human thymocytes express CCR-3 and are activated by eotaxin.
Eotaxin has been characterized as a chemokine involved in eosinophil activation; however, mRNA for this C-C chemokine has been shown to be constitutively expressed in thymus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a punctate distribution pattern, with eotaxin expression localized mainly in the medulla and in Hassle's corpuscles. Moreover, the receptor for eotaxin, CCR-3, was detected on thymocytes, with the highest level of expression being on the CD8 single-positive population. Equilibrium binding analyses on unfractionated thymocytes demonstrated specific 125I-eotaxin binding profiles comparable with CCR-3 transfectants. Eotaxin induced cell migration and mobilization of intracellular calcium in all thymocytes except the immature CD4(-)/CD8(-) population. Eotaxin also induced the secretion of the chemokines interleukin-8, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta from thymocyte cultures in vitro. These results suggest that eotaxin-induced thymocyte activation may have important physiological implications for lymphocyte mobilization within and from this lymphoid organ. (+info)
(6/554) An orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR1, acts as a coreceptor to allow replication of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in brain-derived cells.
Twelve G protein-coupled receptors, including chemokine receptors, act as coreceptors and determinants for the cell tropisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We isolated HIV-1 variants from T-cell-line (T)- and macrophage (M)-tropic (i.e., dualtropic) (R5-R3-X4) HIV-1 strains and also produced six HIV-1 mutants carrying single-point amino acid substitutions at the tip of the V3 region of the Env protein of HIV-1. These variants and three mutants infected brain-derived CD4-positive cells that are resistant to M-, T-, or dualtropic (R5, X4, or R5-X4) HIV-1 strains. However, a factor that determines this cell tropism has not been identified. This study shows that primary brain-derived fibroblast-like cell strains, BT-3 and BT-20/N, as well as a CD4-transduced glioma cell line, U87/CD4, which were susceptible to these HIV-1 variants and mutants and the HIV-2ROD strain, expressed mRNA of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR1. When a CD4-positive cell line which was strictly resistant to infection with diverse HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains was transduced with GPR1, the cell line became susceptible to these HIV-1 variants and mutants and to an HIV-2 strain but not to T- or dualtropic HIV-1 strains, and numerous syncytia formed after infection. These results indicate that GPR1 functions as a coreceptor for the HIV-1 variants and mutants and for the HIV-2ROD strain in vitro. (+info)
(7/554) A trans-receptor mechanism for infection of CD4-negative cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Chemokine receptors, particularly CCR5 and CXCR4, act as essential coreceptors in concert with CD4 for cellular entry by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1; reviewed in ). But infection of CD4(-) cells has also been encountered in various tissues in vivo, including astrocytes, neurons and microvascular endothelial cells of the brain     , epithelial cells  , CD4(-) lymphocytes and thymocytes  , and cardiomyocytes . Here, we present evidence for the infection of CD4(-) cell lines bearing coreceptors by well-known HIV-1 strains when co-cultured with CD4(+) cells. This process requires contact between the coreceptor-bearing and CD4(+) cells and supports the full viral replication cycle within the coreceptor-bearing target cell. Furthermore, CD4 provided in trans facilitates infection of primary human cells, such as brain-derived astrocytes. Although the pathobiological significance of infection of CD4(-) cells in vivo remains to be elucidated, this trans-receptor mechanism may facilitate generation of hidden reservoirs of latent virus that confound antiviral therapies and that contribute to specific AIDS-associated clinical syndromes. (+info)
(8/554) Coreceptor usage of BOB/GPR15 and Bonzo/STRL33 by primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Primary isolates of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) use the chemokine receptor CCR5, in association with CD4, as coreceptor. During AIDS progression, HIV-1 and HIV-2 often adapt to use additional cofactors, particularly CXCR4. In contrast, SIV isolates do not use CXCR4, but other coreceptors such as BOB/GPR15 and Bonzo/STRL33. Only limited information is currently available on usage of BOB/GPR15 and Bonzo/STRL33 by HIV-1. Therefore, we investigated a panel of gp160 clones from 15 primary isolates, representing 5 different subtypes, for utilization of these cofactors. The majority of HIV-1 envelopes mediated entry into BOB/GPR15-expressing cells, albeit often with low efficiency. Usage of Bonzo/STRL33 was less common and usually inefficient. To investigate if HIV-1 entry via these orphan receptors is sufficient to allow virus replication, 15 uncloned primary HIV-1 isolates and 7 molecular clones were used to infect target cells expressing CD4 and Bonzo/STRL33 or BOB/GPR15. Three primary isolates and two molecular clones replicated efficiently in cells expressing BOB/GPR15. Two of these isolates were X4-tropic, two were R5X4-tropic and one was R5-tropic. In contrast, none of the HIV-1 variants showed significant levels of replication in Bonzo/STRL33-expressing cells. Our data show that some HIV-1 isolates of different genetic subtype and of different biological phenotype use BOB/GPR15 for productive infection and suggest that this cofactor may play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis and transmission. (+info)