(1/222) In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog.
1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects. (+info)
(2/222) On the mechanism of histaminergic inhibition of glutamate release in the rat dentate gyrus.
1. Histaminergic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus was investigated using extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques in vitro. 2. Application of histamine (10 microM, 5 min) depressed synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus for 1 h. This depression was blocked by the selective antagonist of histamine H3 receptors, thioperamide (10 microM). 3. The magnitude of the depression caused by histamine was inversely related to the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Application of the N-type calcium channel blocker omega-conotoxin (0. 5 or 1 microM) or the P/Q-type calcium channel blocker omega-agatoxin (800 nM) did not prevent depression of synaptic transmission by histamine. 4. The potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100 microM) enhanced synaptic transmission and reduced the depressant effect of histamine (10 microM). 4-AP reduced the effect of histamine more in 2 mM extracellular calcium than in 4 mM extracellular calcium. 5. Histamine (10 microM) did not affect the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and had only a small effect on their frequency. 6. Histaminergic depression was not blocked by an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinases, H7 (100 microM), or by an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, Lavendustin A (10 microM). 7. Application of adenosine (20 microM) or the adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.3 microM) completely occluded the effect of histamine (10 microM). 8. We conclude that histamine, acting on histamine H3 receptors, inhibits glutamate release by inhibiting presynaptic calcium entry, via a direct G-protein-mediated inhibition of multiple calcium channels. Histamine H3 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors act upon a common final effector to cause presynaptic inhibition. (+info)
(3/222) The histamine H3 receptor agonist N alpha-methylhistamine produced by Helicobacter pylori does not alter somatostatin release from cultured rabbit fundic D-cells.
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the suppression of somatostatin dependent reflexes in Helicobacter pylori infection are not fully determined. The H pylori product N alpha-methylhistamine and inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may be responsible for the alterations in somatostatin release. AIMS: To examine the effect of N alpha-methylhistamine on somatostatin release from cultured somatostatin-secreting D-cells. METHODS: Rabbit fundic D-cells were obtained by collagenase-EDTA digestion and enriched by centrifugal elutriation and cultured for 40 hours. The effects of N alpha-methylhistamine on somatostatin release soon after stimulation (two hours) and after more prolonged exposure (24 hours) were assessed. RESULTS: N alpha-Methylhistamine (1 nM-1 microM) had no effect on basal or carbachol or adrenaline stimulated release over two hours. Similarly with prolonged exposure no effect on somatostatin cell content or release was identified. In contrast, TNF-alpha (24 hours) led to a dose dependent fall in both somatostatin content and release. CONCLUSIONS: N alpha-Methylhistamine had no direct inhibitory effects on D-cells, but TNF-alpha both significantly reduced the cellular content and inhibited release. Inflammatory cytokines, rather than N alpha-methylhistamine, are therefore likely to be responsible for directly inhibiting D-cell function in H pylori infection. (+info)
(4/222) Identification and pharmacological characterization of a series of new 1H-4-substituted-imidazoyl histamine H3 receptor ligands.
A new series of 1H-4-substituted imidazole compounds were synthesized and identified as potent and selective histamine (HA) H3 receptor ligands. These ligands establish that HA H3 antagonists exhibit stereoselective and conformational preferences in their binding to the HA H3 receptor. Structure-activity relationships were determined in vitro by HA H3 receptor-binding affinities using [3H]Nalpha-methylhistamine and rat cerebral cortical tissue homogenates. Several derivatives containing olefin, amide, and acetylene functional groups were identified as potent HA H3 receptor ligands. In the olefin series, GT-2227 (4-(6-cyclohexylhex-cis-3-enyl)imidazole) was identified as a potent HA H3 receptor ligand with a Ki of 4.2 +/- 0.6 nM, while the trans isomer (GT-2228) displayed a reduced potency (Ki = 15.2 +/- 2.4 nM). GT-2227 was also found to have excellent central nervous system penetration in an ex vivo binding paradigm (ED50 = 0.7 mg/kg i.p.). In the acetylene series, GT-2260 and GT-2286 both exhibited high affinity (Ki = 2.9 +/- 0.2 and 0.95 +/- 0.3 nM) and excellent central nervous system penetration profiles (ED50 = 0.43 and 0.48 mg/kg i.p., respectively). As a prototype for the series, GT-2227 showed high affinity for the human HA H3 receptor (3.2 nM) and minimal affinity for the human HA H1 (Ki = 13,407 +/- 540 nM) and H2 (Ki = 4,469 +/- 564 nM) receptor subtypes. GT-2227 also showed good selectivity for the HA H3 receptor over a broad spectrum of other neurotransmitter receptors (IC50 >/= 1 microM). Furthermore, GT-2227 improved acquisition in a cognitive paradigm without behavioral excitation or effect on spontaneous locomotor activity. In summary, the present studies demonstrate the development of novel HA H3-selective ligands, and lend support for the use of such agents in the treatment of disorders associated with cognitive or attentional deficits. (+info)
(5/222) Development of trans-2-[1H-imidazol-4-yl] cyclopropane derivatives as new high-affinity histamine H3 receptor ligands.
Previously, a novel series of 1H-4-substituted imidazole compounds were described as potent and selective histamine (HA) H3 receptor ligands (Yates et al., 1999). The present studies extend the structure-activity relationships for optimal HA H3 receptor affinity and central nervous system penetration by incorporation of a conformationally restricted cyclopropane nucleus. Moreover, the current studies extend our understanding of ligand-receptor interactions at the HA H3 receptor with the development of high affinity HA H3 receptor antagonists containing a stereochemical presentation. Structure-activity relationships were established from in vitro HA H3 receptor-binding affinities using [3H]Nalpha-methylhistamine and rat cortical tissue homogenates. Systematic optimization of multiple structural features critical for HA H3 receptor affinity provided some of the most potent HA H3 receptor agents described. For example, GT-2331 was determined to bind to a single population of HA H3 receptors with a Ki of 0.125 nM. In vivo, GT-2331 has a favorable central nervous system penetration profile with an ED50 of 0.08 mg/kg (i.p.) in rats and a long duration of action (T1/2 > 4 h). In addition, GT-2331 was extremely selective for the HA H3 receptor versus other HA receptors and a battery of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, hormone, or enzyme systems. Several compounds were tested in vitro which suggested HA H3 receptor heterogeneity and are discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships for the HA H3 receptor. (+info)
(6/222) Cloning and functional expression of the human histamine H3 receptor.
Histamine regulates neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous systems through H3 presynaptic receptors. The existence of the histamine H3 receptor was demonstrated pharmacologically 15 years ago, yet despite intensive efforts, its molecular identity has remained elusive. As part of a directed effort to discover novel G protein-coupled receptors through homology searching of expressed sequence tag databases, we identified a partial clone (GPCR97) that had significant homology to biogenic amine receptors. The GPCR97 clone was used to probe a human thalamus library, which resulted in the isolation of a full-length clone encoding a putative G protein-coupled receptor. Homology analysis showed the highest similarity to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and overall low homology to all other biogenic amine receptors. Transfection of GPCR97 into a variety of cell lines conferred an ability to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in response to histamine, but not to acetylcholine or any other biogenic amine. Subsequent analysis revealed a pharmacological profile practically indistinguishable from that for the histamine H3 receptor. In situ hybridization in rat brain revealed high levels of mRNA in all neuronal systems (such as the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and the caudate nucleus) previously associated with H3 receptor function. Its widespread and abundant neuronal expression in the brain highlights the significance of histamine as a general neurotransmitter modulator. The availability of the human H3 receptor cDNA should greatly aid in the development of chemical and biological reagents, allowing a greater appreciation of the role of histamine in brain function. (+info)
(7/222) Tick histamine-binding proteins: isolation, cloning, and three-dimensional structure.
High-affinity histamine-binding proteins (HBPs) were discovered in the saliva of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Their ability to outcompete histamine receptors indicates that they suppress inflammation during blood feeding. The crystal structure of a histamine-bound HBP, determined at 1.25 A resolution, reveals a lipocalin fold novel in containing two binding sites for the same ligand. The sites are orthogonally arranged and highly rigid and form an internal surface of unusual polar character that complements the physicochemical properties of histamine. As soluble receptors of histamine, HBPs offer a new strategy for controlling histamine-based diseases. (+info)
(8/222) Differential effect of histamine 3 receptor-active agents on brain, but not peritoneal, mast cell activation.
The activation of presynaptic histamine 3 (H(3)) receptors inhibits the release of histamine and other neurotransmitters from central nervous system neurons. Rat brain mast cells (MCs) release histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in response to neuropeptides and neurotransmitters secreted from adjacent neurons. Dura MCs also degranulate in response to antidromic trigeminal nerve stimulation and with acute psychological stress. Such findings have implicated brain MCs in certain neuroinflammatory disorders, such as migraines. We investigated the ultrastructural appearance of control and stimulated thalamic/hypothalamic (brain) MCs before and after treatment with the H(3) receptor agonist N(alpha)-methylhistamine (N(alpha)-mH) and the H(3) receptor antagonist thioperamide (Th). Ultrastructural investigation of brain MCs stimulated with compound 48/80 revealed extensive intragranular changes that paralleled 5-HT secretion but without degranulation by exocytosis typical of connective tissue MCs. N(alpha)-mH significantly reduced these morphological changes, as well as 5-HT release from brain MCs and neurons stimulated with KCl; conversely, Th augmented both histamine and 5-HT release from brain neurons and MCs. Neither N(alpha)-mH nor Th had any effect on peritoneal MCs. Simultaneous addition of both drugs largely antagonized each other's effects on brain MC activation and 5-HT secretion. Ultrastructural observations and lack of lactic dehydrogenase release in the perfusate excluded any cytotoxic effect. The ability of H(3) agonists to inhibit brain MC activation, as well as secretion of 5-HT from both brain MCs and neurons, may be useful in the management of migraines. (+info)