(1/638) Identification of a glucose response element in the promoter of the rat glucagon receptor gene.
We cloned the 5' upstream region of the rat glucagon receptor gene, demonstrating that the 5' noncoding domain of the glucagon receptor mRNA contained two untranslated exons of 131 and 166 nucleotides (nt), respectively, separated by two introns of 0.6 and 3.2 kilobase pairs. We also observed an alternative splicing involving the 166-base pair exon. Cloning of up to 2 kilobase pairs of the newly identified genomic domain and transfection of various constructs driving a reporter gene, in pancreatic islet cell line INS-1, uncovered a strong glucose regulation of the promoter activity of plasmids containing up to nucleotide -868, or more, upstream from the transcriptional start point. This promoter activity displayed threshold-like behavior, with low activity of the promoter below 5 mM glucose, and maximal activation as of 10 mM glucose. This glucose regulation was mapped to a highly palindromic 19-nucleotide region between nt -545 and -527. Indeed, deletion or mutation of this sequence abolished the glucose regulation. This domain contained two palindromic "E-boxes" CACGTG and CAGCTG separated by 3 nt, a feature similar to the "L4 box" found in the pyruvate kinase L gene promoter. This is the first description of a G protein-coupled receptor gene promoter regulated by glucose. (+info)
(2/638) Characterization of a novel, non-peptidyl antagonist of the human glucagon receptor.
We have identified a series of potent, orally bioavailable, non-peptidyl, triarylimidazole and triarylpyrrole glucagon receptor antagonists. 2-(4-Pyridyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(5-bromo-2-propyloxyphenyl)p yrr ole (L-168,049), a prototypical member of this series, inhibits binding of labeled glucagon to the human glucagon receptor with an IC50 = 3. 7 +/- 3.4 nM (n = 7) but does not inhibit binding of labeled glucagon-like peptide to the highly homologous human glucagon-like peptide receptor at concentrations up to 10 microM. The binding affinity of L-168,049 for the human glucagon receptor is decreased 24-fold by the inclusion of divalent cations (5 mM). L-168,049 increases the apparent EC50 for glucagon stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human glucagon receptor and decreases the maximal glucagon stimulation observed, with a Kb (concentration of antagonist that shifts the agonist dose-response 2-fold) of 25 nM. These data suggest that L-168,049 is a noncompetitive antagonist of glucagon action. Inclusion of L-168, 049 increases the rate of dissociation of labeled glucagon from the receptor 4-fold, confirming that the compound is a noncompetitive glucagon antagonist. In addition, we have identified two putative transmembrane domain residues, phenylalanine 184 in transmembrane domain 2 and tyrosine 239 in transmembrane domain 3, for which substitution by alanine reduces the affinity of L-168,049 46- and 4. 5-fold, respectively. These mutations do not alter the binding of labeled glucagon, suggesting that the binding sites for glucagon and L-168,049 are distinct. (+info)
(3/638) Glucagon-like peptide 1 increases insulin sensitivity in depancreatized dogs.
To determine whether glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 increases insulin sensitivity in addition to stimulating insulin secretion, we studied totally depancreatized dogs to eliminate GLP-1's incretin effect. Somatostatin was infused (0.8 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) to inhibit extrapancreatic glucagon in dogs, and basal glucagon was restored by intraportal infusion (0.65 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)). To simulate the residual intraportal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes, basal intraportal insulin infusion was given to obtain plasma glucose concentrations of approximately 10 mmol/l. Glucose was clamped at this level for the remainder of the experiment, which included peripheral insulin infusion (high dose, 5.4 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1), or low dose, 0.75 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) with or without GLP-1(7-36) amide (1.5 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Glucose production and utilization were measured with 3-[3H]glucose, using radiolabeled glucose infusates. In 12 paired experiments with six dogs at the high insulin dose, GLP-1 infusion resulted in higher glucose requirements than saline (60.9+/-11.0 vs. 43.6+/-8.3 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P< 0.001), because of greater glucose utilization (72.6+/-11.0 vs. 56.8+/-9.7 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P<0.001), whereas the suppression of glucose production was not affected by GLP-1. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were significantly lower with GLP-1 than saline (375.3+/-103.0 vs. 524.4+/-101.1 micromol/l, P<0.01), as was glycerol (77.9+/-17.5 vs. 125.6+/-51.8 micromol/l, P<0.05). GLP-1 receptor gene expression was found using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of poly(A)-selected RNA in muscle and adipose tissue, but not in liver. Low levels of GLP-1 receptor gene expression were also found in adipose tissue using Northern blotting. In 10 paired experiments with five dogs at the low insulin dose, GLP-1 infusion did not affect glucose utilization or FFA and glycerol suppression when compared with saline, suggesting that GLP-1's effect on insulin action was dependent on the insulin dose. In conclusion, in depancreatized dogs, GLP-1 potentiates insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, an effect that might be contributed in part by GLP-1 potentiation of insulin's antilipolytic action. (+info)
(4/638) Two cytoplasmic loops of the glucagon receptor are required to elevate cAMP or intracellular calcium.
The glucagon receptor is a member of a distinct class of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) sharing little amino acid sequence homology with the larger rhodopsin-like GPCR family. To identify the components of the glucagon receptor necessary for G-protein coupling, we replaced sequentially all or part of each intracellular loop (i1, i2, and i3) and the C-terminal tail of the glucagon receptor with the 11 amino acids comprising the first intracellular loop of the D4 dopamine receptor. When expressed in transiently transfected COS-1 cells, the mutant receptors fell into two different groups with respect to hormone-mediated signaling. The first group included the loop i1 mutants, which bound glucagon and signaled normally. The second group comprised the loop i2 and i3 chimeras, which caused no detectable adenylyl cyclase activation in COS-1 cells. However, when expressed in HEK 293T cells, the loop i2 or i3 chimeras caused very small glucagon-mediated increases in cAMP levels and intracellular calcium concentrations, with EC50 values nearly 100-fold higher than those measured for wild-type receptor. Replacement of both loops i2 and i3 simultaneously was required to completely abolish G protein signaling as measured by both cAMP accumulation and calcium flux assays. These results show that the i2 and i3 loops play a role in glucagon receptor signaling, consistent with recent models for the mechanism of activation of G proteins by rhodopsin-like GPCRs. (+info)
(5/638) Glucagon receptor gene mutation (Gly40Ser) in human essential hypertension: the PEGASE study.
A missense mutation (Gly40Ser) in exon 2 of the glucagon receptor gene (GCG-R) was shown to reduce ligand affinity and impair cAMP response. We conducted a case-control study with a sample of 741 French hypertensive patients with moderate to severe hypertension and 412 normotensive control subjects, who were genotyped for this biallelic variant by use of hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides. The Gly40Ser polymorphism was not significantly associated with hypertension in the whole study population, although the frequency of 40Ser carriers in hypertensive subjects was double that in normotensive subjects (3.1% in hypertensives versus 1.5%; P=0.087). However, the separate analysis of both genders revealed that 40Ser allele carriers were significantly more frequent (P=0. 035) among male patients (17/429; 4.0%) than among normotensive male controls (2/242; 0.8%), whereas no significant difference was observed in female subjects (6/312 in hypertensives and 4/170 in normotensives). Further studies are required to interpret the significance of this association. (+info)
(6/638) Functional studies of a glucagon receptor isolated from frog Rana tigrina rugulosa: implications on the molecular evolution of glucagon receptors in vertebrates.
In this report, the first amphibian glucagon receptor (GluR) cDNA was characterized from the liver of the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa. Functional expression of the frog GluR in CHO and COS-7 cells showed a high specificity of the receptor towards human glucagon with an EC(50) value of 0.8+/-0.5 nM. The binding of radioiodinated human glucagon to GluR was displaced in a dose-dependent manner only with human glucagon and its antagonist (des-His(1)-[Nle(9)-Ala(11)-Ala(16)]) with IC(50) values of 12.0+/-3. 0 and 7.8+/-1.0 nM, respectively. The frog GluR did not display any affinity towards fish and human GLP-1s, and towards glucagon peptides derived from two species of teleost fishes (goldfish, zebrafish). These fish glucagons contain substitutions in several key residues that were previously shown to be critical for the binding of human glucagon to its receptor. By RT-PCR, mRNA transcripts of frog GluR were located in the liver, brain, small intestine and colon. These results demonstrate a conservation of the functional characteristics of the GluRs in frog and mammalian species and provide a framework for a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the GluR and its physiological function in vertebrates. (+info)
(7/638) Altered cAMP and Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic islets with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor null phenotype.
1-Cells from rodents and humans express different receptors recognizing hormones of the secretin-glucagon family, which--when activated--synergize with glucose in the control of insulin release. We have recently reported that isolated islets from mice homozygous for a GLP-1 receptor null mutation (GLP-1R(-/-)) exhibit a well-preserved insulin-secretory response to glucose. This observation can be interpreted in two different ways: 1) the presence of GLP-1R is not essential for the secretory response of isolated islets to glucose alone; 2) beta-cells in GLP-1R(-/-) pancreases underwent compensatory changes in response to the null mutation. To explore these possibilities, we studied islets from control GLP-IR(+/+) mice in the absence or presence of 1 pmol/l exendin (9-39)amide, a specific and potent GLP-1R antagonist. Exendin (9-39)amide (15-min exposure) reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion from both perifused and statically incubated GLP-1R(+/+) islets by 50% (P < 0.05), and reduced islet cAMP production in parallel (P < 0.001). Furthermore, GLP-1R(-/-) islets exhibited: 1) reduced cAMP accumulation in the presence of 20 mmol/l glucose (knockout islets versus control islets, 12 +/- 1 vs. 27 +/- 3 fmol x islet(-1) x 15 min(-1); P < 0.001) and exaggerated acceleration of cAMP production by 10 nmol/l glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (increase over 20 mmol/l glucose by GIP in knockout islets versus control islets: 66 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 3 fmol x islet(-1) x 15 min(-1); P < 0.001); 2) increased mean cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) at 7, 10, and 15 mmol/l glucose in knockout islets versus control islets; and 3) signs of asynchrony of [Ca2+]c oscillations between different islet subregions. In conclusion, disruption of GLP-1R signaling is associated with reduced basal but enhanced GIP-stimulated cAMP production and abnormalities in basal and glucose-stimulated [Ca2+]c. These abnormalities suggest that GLP-1R signaling is an essential upstream component of multiple beta-cell signaling pathways. (+info)
(8/638) Identification of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)-activated signaling pathways in baby hamster kidney fibroblasts expressing the rat GLP-2 receptor.
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) promotes the expansion of the intestinal epithelium through stimulation of the GLP-2 receptor, a recently identified member of the glucagon-secretin G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Although activation of G protein-coupled receptors may lead to stimulation of cell growth, the mechanisms transducing the GLP-2 signal to mitogenic proliferation remain unknown. We now report studies of GLP-2R signaling in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells expressing a transfected rat GLP-2 receptor (BHK-GLP-2R cells). GLP-2, but not glucagon or GLP-1, increased the levels of cAMP and activated both cAMP-response element- and AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of AP-1-luciferase activity was protein kinase A (PKA) -dependent and markedly diminished in the presence of a dominant negative inhibitor of PKA. Although GLP-2 stimulated the expression of c-fos, c-jun, junB, and zif268, and transiently increased p70 S6 kinase in quiescent BHK-GLP-2R cells, GLP-2 also inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and reduced serum-stimulated Elk-1 activity. Furthermore, no rise in intracellular calcium was observed following GLP-2 exposure in BHK-GLP-2R cells. Although GLP-2 stimulated both cAMP accumulation and cell proliferation, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP alone did not promote cell proliferation. These findings suggest that the GLP-2R may be coupled to activation of mitogenic signaling in heterologous cell types independent of PKA via as yet unidentified downstream mediators of GLP-2 action in vivo. (+info)