(1/819) Oligomerization and scaffolding functions of the erythropoietin receptor cytoplasmic tail.

Signal transduction by the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is activated by ligand-mediated receptor homodimerization. However, the relationship between extracellular and intracellular domain oligomerization remains poorly understood. To assess the requirements for dimerization of receptor cytoplasmic sequences for signaling, we overexpressed mutant EPORs in combination with wild-type (WT) EPOR to drive formation of heterodimeric (i.e. WT-mutant) receptor complexes. Dimerization of the membrane-proximal portion of the EPOR cytoplasmic region was found to be critical for the initiation of mitogenic signaling. However, dimerization of the entire EPOR cytoplasmic region was not required. To examine this process more closely, we generated chimeras between the intracellular and transmembrane portions of the EPOR and the extracellular domains of the interleukin-2 receptor beta and gammac chains. These chimeras allowed us to assess more precisely the signaling role of each receptor chain because only heterodimers of WT and mutant receptor chimeras form in the presence of interleukin-2. Coexpression studies demonstrated that a functional receptor complex requires the membrane-proximal region of each receptor subunit in the oligomer to permit activation of JAK2 but only one membrane-distal tail to activate STAT5 and to support cell proliferation. Thus, this study defines key relationships involved in the assembly and activation of the EPOR signal transduction complex which may be applicable to other homodimeric cytokine receptors.  (+info)

(2/819) Human, rat, and mouse kidney cells express functional erythropoietin receptors.

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO), secreted by fibroblast-like cells in the renal interstitium, controls erythropoiesis by regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. We examined whether renal cells that are exposed to EPO express EPO receptors (EPO-R) through which analogous cytokine responses might be elicited. METHODS: Normal human and rat kidney tissue and defined cell lines of human, rat, and mouse kidney were screened, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequencing, ligand binding, and Western blotting, for the expression of EPO-R. EPO's effects on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation were also examined. RESULTS: EPO-R transcripts were readily detected in cortex, medulla, and papilla of human and rat kidney, in mesangial (human, rat), proximal tubular (human, mouse), and medullary collecting duct cells (human). Nucleotide sequences of EPO-R cDNAs from renal cells were identical to those of erythroid precursor cells. Specific 125I-EPO binding revealed a single class of high- to intermediate-affinity EPO-Rs in each tested cell line (kD 96 pm to 1. 4 nm; Bmax 0.3 to 7.0 fmol/mg protein). Western blots of murine proximal tubular cell membranes revealed an EPO-R protein of approximately 68 kDa. EPO stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation dose dependently. CONCLUSION: This is the first direct demonstration, to our knowledge, that renal cells possess EPO-Rs through which EPO stimulates mitogenesis. This suggests currently unrecognized cytokine functions for EPO in the kidney, which may prove beneficial in the repair of an injured kidney while being potentially detrimental in renal malignancies.  (+info)

(3/819) Role of cytokine signaling molecules in erythroid differentiation of mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells: functional analysis of signaling molecules by retrovirus-mediated expression.

Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) play a central role in proliferation, differentiation, and survival of erythroid progenitors. Signals induced by EPO have been studied extensively by using erythroid as well as nonerythroid cell lines, and various controversial results have been reported as to the role of signaling molecules in erythroid differentiation. Here we describe a novel approach to analyze the EPO signaling by using primary mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells to avoid possible artifacts due to established cell lines. Our strategy is based on high-titer retrovirus vectors with a bicistronic expression system consisting of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). By placing the cDNA for a signaling molecule in front of IRES-GFP, virus-infected cells can be viably sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and the effect of expression of the signaling molecule can be assessed. By using this system, expression of cell-survival genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was found to enhance erythroid colony formation from colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) in response to EPO. However, their expression was not sufficient for erythroid colony formation from CFU-E alone, indicating that EPO induces signals for erythroid differentiation. To examine the role of EPOR tyrosine residues in erythroid differentiation, we introduced a chimeric EGFR-EPOR receptor, which has the extracellular domain of the EGF receptor and the intracellular domain of the EPOR, as well as a mutant EGFR-EPOR in which all the cytoplasmic tyrosine residues are replaced with phenylalanine, and found that tyrosine residues of EPOR are essential for erythroid colony formation from CFU-E. We further analyzed the function of the downstream signaling molecules by expressing modified signaling molecules and found that both JAK2/STAT5 and Ras, two major signaling pathways activated by EPOR, are involved in full erythroid differentiation.  (+info)

(4/819) Localization and characterization of curved DNA in the human erythropoietin receptor gene by experimental and theoretical approaches.

We report here the locations of curved DNA in the human erythropoietin receptor gene. A total of 13 DNA bend sites were mapped by circular permutation assays, appearing at an average interval of 651.2+/-214.6 (S.D.) in the 8-kb region. The bend centers in these 13 bend sites were confirmed by oligonucleotide-based assays where most of these centers had bend angles higher than that shown by (AAACCGGGCC) x (A)20 and lower than that shown by (AAACCGGGCC)2 x (A)10. DNA curvature mapping by TRIF software, which is based on the distribution of dinucleotides, primarily AA and TT, provided a highly accurate prediction for the locations of the bend sites. They showed approximately 20 degrees to 40 degrees of bend angles demonstrated by the oligonucleotide assays and by computer analysis.  (+info)

(5/819) Expression of the erythropoietin receptor by trophoblast cellsin the human placenta.

Nonclassical sites of erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) expression have been described that suggest new physiological roles for this hormone unrelated to erythropoiesis. The recent finding of EPO expression by trophoblast cells in the human placenta prompted us to consider whether these cells also express EPO-R. With use of immunocytochemistry, EPO-R was identified in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells, as well as in the syncytiotrophoblast at all gestational ages. EPO-R was also expressed by cells within the villous core, including endothelial cells of fetoplacental blood vessels. Placental tissues and isolated and immunopurified trophoblast cells, as well as trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma Jar cells, expressed immunoreactive EPO-R on Western blot. EPO-R mRNA was also detected in the same placental tissues and trophoblast cells by nested-primer reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Finally, EPO-R was functional insofar as the receptor was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to exogenous EPO treatment of cultured trophoblast or Jar cells. Thus, the present findings support the hypothesis that trophoblast cells of the human placenta express EPO-R. In view of these results, taken together with previous work demonstrating EPO expression by the same cells, an autocrine role for this hormone in the survival, proliferation, or differentiation of placental trophoblast cells is proposed.  (+info)

(6/819) FLI-1 inhibits differentiation and induces proliferation of primary erythroblasts.

Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia involves two members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, both activated via proviral insertion in the corresponding loci. Spi-1/PU.1 is expressed in the disease induced by the original Friend virus SFFV(F-MuLV) complex in adult mice. In contrast, FLI-1 is overexpressed in about 75% of the erythroleukemias induced by the F-MuLV helper virus in newborn mice. To analyse the consequences of the enforced expression of FLI-1 on erythroblast differentiation and proliferation and to compare its activity to that of PU.1/Spi-1, we used a heterologous system of avian primary erythroblasts previously described to study the cooperation between Spi-1/PU.1 and the other molecular alterations observed in SFFV-induced disease. FLI-1 was found: (i) to inhibit the apoptotic cell death program normally activated in erythroblasts following Epo deprivation; (ii) to inhibit the terminal differentiation program induced in these cells in response to Epo and; (iii) to induce their proliferation. However, in contrast to Spi-1/PU.1, the effects of FLI-1 on erythroblast, differentiation and proliferation did not require its cooperation with an abnormally activated form of the EpoR. Enhanced survival of FLI-1 expressing erythroblasts correlated with the upregulation of bcl2 expression. FLI-1 also prevented the rapid downregulation of cyclin D2 and D3 expression normally observed during Epo-induced differentiation and delayed the downregulation of several other genes involved in cell cycle or cell proliferation control. Our results show that overexpression of FLI-1 profoundly deregulates the normal balance between differentiation and proliferation in primary erythroblasts. Thus, the activation of FLI-1 expression observed at the onset of F-MuLV-induced erythroleukemia may provide a proliferative advantage to virus infected cells that would otherwise undergo terminal differentiation or cell death.  (+info)

(7/819) Human recombinant erythropoietin inhibits interleukin-1beta-stimulated nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate production in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells.

BACKGROUND: Recently rat vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMC) have been shown to possess Epo receptor, and respond to various cytokines for producing nitric oxide (NO). In the present study we examined the effect of pharmacological dose of human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on the IL-1beta-induced NO and cGMP production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured rat VSMC. METHODS: Nitrite, a stable metabolite of NO, and intracellular cGMP contents were assayed by Griess method and enzyme immunoassay. iNOS mRNA expression was analysed by Northern blotting. RESULTS: RHuEpo inhibited IL-1beta-induced nitrite production in a dose- and time-dependent manner with concomitant changes of intracellular cGMP contents. On the other hand, rHuEpo did not inhibit atrial natriuretic peptide- (ANP) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced nitrite and cGMP production at all. While rHuEpo inhibited IL-1beta-induced iNOS mRNA expression, rHuEpo vehicle did not affect IL-1beta-induced iNOS mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that a pharmacological dose of rHuEpo inhibits IL-1beta-induced NO and cGMP production as well as iNOS mRNA expression, presumably via the Epo receptor.  (+info)

(8/819) HGF activates signal transduction from EPO receptor on human cord blood CD34+/CD45+ cells.

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional cytokine with early hematopoiesis-stimulatory activity. Here, we focus on its erythropoiesis-stimulatory effect on highly purified human hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+/CD45+ cells) derived from the cord blood. In immunoblot analyses, c-met protein (a receptor of HGF) was detected in the CD34+/CD45+ cells, although the expression levels were different among samples. The c-met expression was facilitated by incubation of the cells with stem cell factor (SCF) or interleukin 3 (IL-3), even if the expression level had been low. IL-6, G-CSF, or erythropoietin (EPO) did not show such a stimulatory effect on the c-met expression of the cells. When HGF was added to the CD34+/CD45+ cells in the presence of SCF, the numbers of CD36+/CD11b- cells (very early erythroid lineage cells) and BFU-E increased. EPO-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat 5 also increased, but the EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression remained unchanged in the CD34+/CD45+ cells treated with SCF + HGF. Our present study suggests that stimulation of the HGF/c-met signal is concomitant with induction of c-met protein by SCF. The subsequent enhancement of signal transduction via the activation of Stat 5 from the EPO-R plays a crucial role in the commitment of hematopoietic stem cells into erythroid lineage cells.  (+info)