Primary haemostasis: sticky fingers cement the relationship.
Platelet aggregation to form a haemostatic plug, or thrombus, plays a key role in preventing bleeding from a wound. Recent studies have provided new insights into how platelet receptors are deployed during the interactions with the vascular subendothelial matrix that lead to haemostatic plug formation. (+info)
Tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk following stimulation of the collagen receptor in platelets.
Collagen-related peptide (CRP), a collagen homologue, induces platelet activation through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway, leading to sequential tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc receptor (FcR) gamma-chain, Syk, and phospholipase C-gamma2. Here we report that CRP and the platelet low affinity immune receptor FcgammaRIIA stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the T cell adapter SLP-76, whereas the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin induces only minor tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that SLP-76 has a specific role downstream of receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate association of SLP-76 with SLAP-130, Vav, Fyn, Lyn, and the FcR gamma-chain in CRP-stimulated platelets. Several of these proteins, including SLP-76, undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in in vitro kinase assays performed on SLP-76 immunoprecipitates. Tyrosine phosphorylation of all of these proteins in the in vitro kinase assay was abrogated by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1, suggesting that it is mediated by either Fyn or Lyn. The physiological significance of this is uncertain, however, since tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 in vivo is not altered in either Fyn- or Lyn-deficient platelets. CRP stimulation of Syk-deficient platelets demonstrated that in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk. The absence of Syk in the SLP-76 immunoprecipitates raises the possibility that another protein is responsible for bringing SLP-76 to Syk. Candidates for this include those proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with SLP-76, including the FcR gamma-chain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 and Ca2+ mobilization is markedly attenuated in SLP-76-deficient platelets following CRP stimulation, suggesting that the adapter plays a critical role in the regulation of the phospholipase. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SLAP-130 in response to CRP is also inhibited in SLP-76-deficient platelets, placing it downstream of SLP-76. This work identifies SLP-76 as an important adapter molecule that is regulated by Syk and lies upstream of SLAP-130 and PLC-gamma2 in CRP-stimulated platelets. (+info)
The Megakaryocyte/Platelet-specific enhancer of the alpha2beta1 integrin gene: two tandem AP1 sites and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade.
The alpha2beta1 integrin, a collagen receptor on platelets and megakaryocytes, is required for normal platelet function. Transcriptional regulation of the alpha2 integrin gene in cells undergoing megakaryocytic differentiation requires a core promoter between bp -30 and -92, a silencer between bp -92 and -351, and megakaryocytic enhancers in the distal 5' flank. We have now identified a 229-bp region of the distal 5' flank of the alpha2 integrin gene required for high-level enhancer activity in cells with megakaryocytic features. Two tandem AP1 binding sites with dyad symmetry are required for enhancer activity and for DNA-protein complex formation with members of the c-fos/c-jun family. The requirement for AP1 activation suggested a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in regulating alpha2 integrin gene expression. Inhibition of the MAP kinase cascade with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase 1, prevented the expression of the alpha2 integrin subunit in cells induced to become megakaryocytic. We provide a model of megakaryocytic differentiation in which expression of the alpha2 integrin gene requires signaling via the MAP kinase pathway to activate two tandem AP1 binding sites in the alpha2 integrin enhancer. (+info)
Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo.
The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development. (+info)
Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides enhance integrin-mediated platelet adhesion to collagen.
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Their role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unknown. Gangliosides isolated from tumor cells promote collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and ATP secretion and enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen. These activities are all mediated by ganglioside effects on the platelet integrin collagen receptor alpha2beta1. Therefore, we hypothesized that gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic plaques would enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen, a major component of the subendothelial matrix of blood vessels. Furthermore, we questioned whether this effect of atherosclerotic gangliosides might play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the gangliosides from postmortem aortas of patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease and examined their effects on platelet adhesion. Samples of aortic tissue taken from areas involved with atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated accumulation of gangliosides (64.9+/-6.5 nmol/g wet weight) compared with gangliosides isolated from control normal aortic tissue taken from children who died of noncardiac causes (NAGs; 21.1+/-6.4 nmol/g wet weight). Interestingly, samples of tissue taken from diseased aortas but from areas not involved with gross plaque formation also demonstrated ganglioside accumulation (47.6+/-12.8 nmol/g wet weight). Next, the activity of each of these gangliosides on platelet adhesion to immobilized type I collagen was studied. Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides (AAGs) as well as those isolated from grossly unaffected areas of the same aorta (UAGs) both increased platelet adhesion compared with control NAGs (OD570, 0. 37+/-0.11 and 0.29+/-0.14 versus 0.16+/-0.07, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). These OD570 values corresponded to 9x10(5), 8x10(4), and 6x10(3) platelets per well after preincubation with 5 micromol/L AAG, UAG, and NAG, respectively. Increased adhesion was observed after preincubation with as little as 0.5 micromol/L AAG, and maximal adhesion was seen at 2.5 micromol/L, with a plateau extending to the highest concentration tested, 10 micromol/L. The effect of AAGs on platelet adhesion to collagen was abrogated by incubation of treated platelets with F-17 anti-alpha2 monoclonal antibody (OD570, 0.13+/-0.02). Finally, the effects of the major individual gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic tissues, GM3 and GD3, were tested. GM3 increased adhesion to collagen (OD570, 0.415+/-0.06) as did GD3 (0.31+/-0.08). Similar to that of AAGs, the effect of both molecules was blocked by F-17 (0. 09+/-0.04 and 0.13+/-0.06, respectively). These experiments demonstrate that accumulated atherosclerotic gangliosides promote platelet adhesion to collagen, the major component of the subendothelial matrix. Furthermore, this activity is mediated by an effect of the gangliosides on the collagen-binding integrin alpha2beta1. This activity may provide a mechanism for the development of platelet thrombi at sites where atherosclerotic gangliosides accumulate and help to explain the role of platelets in the process of atherosclerotic disease progression. (+info)
Alkali-treated collagen retained the triple helical conformation and the ligand activity for the cell adhesion via alpha2beta1 integrin.
Alkaline treatment is a good method for extracting collagen with high recovery even from an aged animal specimen. However, the properties of collagen treated under alkaline conditions have not been well established yet. By the treatment with a solution of 3% sodium hydroxide and 1.9% monomethylamine, the isoelectric point of type I collagen was lowered from 9.3 to 4.8 because of the conversions of Asn and Gln to Asp and Glu. With the acidification of the pI, the denaturation temperature of the collagen was decreased from 42 to 35 degrees C after 20 d treatment, but the collagen-specific triple helical conformation was maintained. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the alkali-treated collagen via the collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1. This indicates that the alkali-treated collagen maintained its property as a biological adherent molecule. Unlike acid-soluble collagen, alkali-treated collagen lost the ability to form fibrils at neutral pH under physiological conditions. This ability was lost even after 4 h of alkaline treatment, when the denaturation temperature of the collagen did not change. On the other hand, the alkali-treated collagen formed a fibrous precipitate with a uniform diameter of 50-70 nm under acidic conditions at 30 degrees C. (+info)
The hookworm platelet inhibitor: functional blockade of integrins GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) and GPIa/IIa (alpha2beta1) inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion in vitro.
Hookworms, aggressive, blood-feeding, intestinal nematodes, are currently a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in the developing world. An inhibitor of platelet aggregation and adhesion has been partially purified and characterized from soluble protein extracts of adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms. This protein, named the hookworm platelet inhibitor, has an estimated molecular mass of 15 kDa as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. In addition to blocking platelet aggregation in response to a variety of agonists, the partially purified inhibitor also prevents adhesion of resting platelets to immobilized fibrinogen and collagen. Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies were used to identify specific blockade of cell surface integrins GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) and GPIa/IIa (alpha2beta1), the platelet receptors for fibrinogen and collagen, respectively. This broad-spectrum anti-platelet activity is also present in excretory and secretory products of adult worms, suggesting a biologic role for the hookworm platelet inhibitor in vivo. (+info)
Monomeric (glycine-proline-hydroxyproline)10 repeat sequence is a partial agonist of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI.
We have previously reported that a triple-helical, collagen-related peptide (CRP; also known as CRP-XL) containing a glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPP*) repeat motif and cross-linked through cysteine residues at its N-terminus and C-terminus is a powerful stimulus of platelet aggregation and secretion through the surface receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). The activation of platelets is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase C gamma2 (PLCgamma2). We now report that the non-cross-linked backbone of CRP, monomeric CRP (mCRP), stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and PLCgamma2 in platelets and induces the weak secretion of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) and aggregation. The action of mCRP does not seem to be due to spontaneous cross-linking, because alkylation of the cysteine residues leads to an increase in activity. The tripeptide backbone of CRP, GPP*10 (in which P* represents hydroxyproline) also stimulates platelet shape change and the weak tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and PLCgamma2, but is unable to induce aggregation or secretion. The monomeric peptides partly inhibit the release of [3H]5-HT by CRP, suggesting that they are partial agonists of the collagen receptor GPVI. These results demonstrate that GPP* present as a repeat motif is sufficient to activate the platelet collagen receptor GPVI but that the cross-linking of monomers brings about an increase in activity. (+info)