(1/533) Proliferative effects of cholecystokinin in GH3 pituitary cells mediated by CCK2 receptors and potentiated by insulin.
1. Proliferative effects of CCK peptides have been examined in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells, which express CCK2 receptors. 2. CCK-8s, gastrin(1-17) and its glycine-extended precursor G(1-17)-Gly, previously reported to cause proliferation via putative novel sites on AR4-2J and Swiss 3T3 cells, elicited significant dose dependent increases of similar magnitude in [3H]thymidine incorporation over 3 days in serum-free medium of 39 +/- 10% (P < 0.01, n = 20), 37 +/- 8% (P < 0.01, n = 27) and 41 +/- 6% (P < 0.01, n = 36) respectively. 3. CCK-8s and gastrin potentially stimulated mitogenesis (EC50 values 0.12 nM and 3.0 nM respectively), whilst G-Gly displayed similar efficacy but markedly lower potency. L-365,260 consistently blocked each peptide. The CCK2 receptor affinity of G-Gly in GH3 cells was 1.09 microM (1.01;1.17, n = 6) and 5.53 microM (3.71;5.99, n = 4) in guinea-pig cortex. 4. 1 microM G-Gly weakly stimulated Ca2+ increase, eliciting a 104 +/- 21% increase over basal Ca2+ levels, and was blocked by 1 microM L-365,260 whilst CCK-8s (100 nM) produced a much larger Ca2+ response (331 +/- 14%). 5. Insulin dose dependently enhanced proliferative effects of CCK-8s with a maximal leftwards shift of the CCK-8s curve at 100 ng ml(-1) (17 nM) (EC50 decreased 500 fold, from 0.1 nM to 0.2 pM; P < 0.0001). 10 microg ml(-1) insulin was supramaximal reducing the EC50 to 5 pM (P = 0.027) whilst 1 ng ml(-1) insulin was ineffective. Insulin weakly displaced [125I]BHCCK binding to GH3 CCK2 receptors (IC50 3.6 microM). 6. Results are consistent with mediation of G-Gly effects via CCK2 receptors in GH3 cells and reinforce the role of CCK2 receptors in control of cell growth. Effects of insulin in enhancing CCK proliferative potency may suggest that CCK2 and insulin receptors converge on common intracellular targets and indicates that mitogenic stimuli are influenced by the combination of extracellular factors present. (+info)
(2/533) Regulation of lateral mobility and cellular trafficking of the CCK receptor by a partial agonist.
Partial agonists are effective tools for advancing development of highly selective drugs and providing insights into molecular regulation of cellular functions. Here, we explore the impact of a partial agonist on key aspects of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor regulation, its lateral mobility and cellular trafficking, in native pancreatic acinar cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing CCK receptor (CHO-CCKR). We developed and characterized a novel fluorescent partial agonist, rhodamine-Gly-[(Nle28, 31)CCK-26-32]-phenethyl ester, that binds specifically and with high affinity to CCK receptors. Such analogs are fully efficacious pancreatic acinar cell secretagogues without supramaximal inhibition that mobilize intracellular calcium with little or no increase in phospholipase C (PLC) activity. Despite minimal phosphorylation of CCK receptors in response to this partial agonist, receptor trafficking was the same as that observed with full agonist (CCK). This included normal internalization via clathrin-dependent endocytosis in CHO-CCKR cells and insulation on the surface of pancreatic acinar cells. Also, as with CCK-occupied receptor, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of partial agonist-occupied receptor on the acinar cell surface demonstrated a marked temperature-dependent slowing of its rate of diffusion. This was similarly associated with resistance to acid-induced dissociation of ligand. Thus some key molecular regulatory mechanisms for CCK receptor internalization and insulation may be initiated by cellular signaling cascades that are not dependent on PLC activation or receptor phosphorylation. (+info)
(3/533) Involvement of RhoA and its interaction with protein kinase C and Src in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini.
We evaluated intracellular pathways responsible for the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho p21 in rat pancreatic acini. Intact acini were incubated with or without CCK and carbachol, and Triton X-100-soluble and crude microsomes were used for Western immunoblotting. When a RhoA-specific antibody was used, a single band at the location of 21 kDa was detected. CCK (10 pM-10 nM) and carbachol (0.1-100 microM) dose dependently increased the amount of immunodetectable RhoA with a peak increase occurring at 3 min. High-affinity CCK-A-receptor agonists JMV-180 and CCK-OPE (1-1,000 nM) did not increase the intensities of the RhoA band, suggesting that stimulation of RhoA is mediated by the low-affinity CCK-A receptor. Although an increase in RhoA did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished the appearance of the RhoA band in response to CCK and carbachol. The Gq protein inhibitor G protein antagonist-2A (10 microM) and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 (10 microM) markedly reduced RhoA bands in response to CCK. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester (10-1,000 nM) dose dependently increased the intensities of the RhoA band, which were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor K-252a (1 microM). The pp60(c-src) inhibitor herbimycin A (6 microM) inhibited the RhoA band in response to CCK, whereas the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (100 microM) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (6 microM) had no effect. RhoA was immunoprecipitated with Src, suggesting association of RhoA with Src. Increases in mass of this complex were observed with CCK stimulation. In permeabilized acini, the Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme dose dependently inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 of C3 exoenzyme at 1 ng/ml. We concluded that the small GTP-binding protein RhoA p21 exists in pancreatic acini and appears to be involved in the mediation of pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by CCK and carbachol. RhoA pathways are involved in the activation of PKC and Src cascades via Gq protein and PLC. (+info)
(4/533) Supraspinal neurotensin-induced antianalgesia in mice is mediated by spinal cholecystokinin.
Intracerebral injection of neurotensin into specific brain loci in rats produces hyperalgesia due to the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the spinal cord. The present purpose was to show in another species that neurotensin can antagonize the antinociceptive action of morphine through the spinal CCK mechanism in mice. Neurotensin given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at doses higher than 100 ng produced antinociception in the tail flick test. However, at lower doses between 1 pg to 25 ng, neurotensin antagonized the antinociceptive action of morphine given intrathecally (i.t.), thus demonstrating the antianalgesic activity of neurotensin. The rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve produced by i.c.v. neurotensin was eliminated by an i.t. pretreatment with CCK8 antibody (5 microl of antiserum solution diluted 1:1000). I.t. administration of lorglumide, a CCK(A)-receptor antagonist (10-1000 ng), and PD135,158, a CCK(B)-receptor antagonist (250-500 ng), also eliminated the antianalgesic action of neurotensin. Thus, the mechanism of the antianalgesic action of neurotensin given i.c.v. involved spinal CCK. This mode of action is similar to that for the antianalgesic action of supraspinal pentobarbital which also involves spinal CCK. (+info)
(5/533) SR146131: a new potent, orally active, and selective nonpeptide cholecystokinin subtype 1 receptor agonist. I. In vitro studies.
SR146131 inhibited the binding of [125I]-Bolton Hunter (BH)-sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) for the human recombinant cholecystokinin subtype 1 (CCK1) receptor (IC50 = 0.56 nM) with high (300-fold) selectivity to the CCK2 receptor. The biological activity of SR146131 was characterized in vitro in a NIH-3T3 cell line expressing the human recombinant CCK1 receptor (3T3-hCCK1). Measuring intracellular calcium release, SR146131 behaved as a full agonist with an efficacy comparable with that of CCK-8S (EC50 = 1.38 +/- 0.06 nM). On individual cells, SR146131 induced, like CCK-8S, Ca2+ oscillations at subnanomolar concentrations and sustained responses at higher concentrations. Like CCK-8S, SR146131 also fully stimulated inositol monophosphate formation (EC50 = 18 +/- 4 nM). SR146131 partially activated mitogen-activated protein kinase and enhanced the expression of the immediate early gene krox 24. In the human CHP212 and IMR32 neuroblastoma cell lines, which constitutively express the CCK1 receptor, SR146131 behaved as a partial agonist on intracellular calcium release and inositol monophosphate formation. All of these effects of SR146131 were inhibited by the CCK1 receptor antagonists SR27897B and devazepide, suggesting that the effects of SR146131 were entirely mediated by the CCK1 receptor. In contrast, high concentrations (>1 microM) of SR146131 had only minimal effects on CCK-8S-stimulated and unstimulated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human CCK2 receptor, indicating that SR146131 is functionally inactive on the CCK2 receptor. In conclusion, these in vitro experiments show that SR146131 is a highly potent and selective agonist of the CCK1 receptor. (+info)
(6/533) SR146131: a new potent, orally active, and selective nonpeptide cholecystokinin subtype 1 receptor agonist. II. In vivo pharmacological characterization.
SR146131 is a potent and selective agonist at cholecystokinin subtype 1 (CCK1) receptors in vitro. The present study evaluates the activity of the compound in vivo. SR146131 completely inhibited gastric and gallbladder emptying in mice (ED50 of 66 and 2.7 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). SR146131 dose dependently reduced food intake in fasted rats (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of neuropeptide Y (1-36) (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.), in fasted gerbils (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), and in marmosets maintained on a restricted diet (from 3 mg/kg p.o.). SR146131 (10 mg/kg p.o.) also increased the number of Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. Locomotor activity of mice was reduced by orally administered SR146131 (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.). When administered intrastriatally, SR146131 elicited contralateral turning behavior in mice. Furthermore, orally administered SR146131 (0.3-10 mg/kg), also reduced the levels of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Finally, SR146131 (0.1 microgram/kg to 1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose dependently antagonized fluphenazine-induced mouth movements in rats. The CCK1 antagonist SR27897B prevented all the effects of SR146131. Conversely, SR146131 was unable to elicit any agonist or antagonist effects in a model of CCK2 receptor stimulation in vivo. SR146131 is a very potent and selective nonpeptide CCK1 agonist in vivo. SR146131 is more potent than any other CCK1 agonists reported to date. Because pharmacodynamic studies suggest that SR146131 should have a high absolute bioavailability, it may be a promising drug for the treatment of eating and motor disorders in humans. (+info)
(7/533) Analysis of the behaviour of selected CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonists in radioligand binding assays performed in mouse and rat cerebral cortex.
1. The previously described complex behaviour of the CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist, L-365,260, in radioligand binding assays could be explained by a variable population of two binding sites. We have investigated whether other CCKB/gastrin receptor ligands (PD134,308, PD140,376, YM022 and JB93182) can distinguish between these sites. 2. In the mouse cortex assay, Hill slopes were not different from unity and the ligand pKI values did not differ when either [125I]-BH-CCK-8S or [3H]-PD140,376 was used as label as expected for a single site (G2). 3. In the rat cortex, where previous analysis of replicate (n=48) L-365,260 data indicated the presence of two CCKB/gastrin sites (G1 and G2), the competition data for PD134,308, PD140,376, YM022 and JB93182 could be explained by a homogeneous population of CCKB/gastrin sites because the Hill slope estimates were not significantly different from unity. However, the estimated affinity values for JB93182 and YM022 were significantly higher and that for PD134,308 was significantly lower than those obtained in the mouse cortex when the same radioligand was used. In view of our previous data obtained with L-365,260, the rat cortex data were also interpreted using a two-site model. In this analysis, SR27897 expressed approximately 9 fold, PD134,308 approximately 13 fold and PD140,376 approximately 11 fold selectivity for the G2 site. In contrast, JB93182 expressed approximately 23 fold and YM022 approximately 4 fold selectivity for the G1 site. If the two-site interpretation of the data is valid then, because of its reverse selectivity to L-365,260, JB93182 has been identified as a compound which if radiolabelled could provide a test of this receptor subdivision. (+info)
(8/533) Characterization of the binding of a novel radioligand to CCKB/gastrin receptors in membranes from rat cerebral cortex.
1. We have investigated the binding of a novel radiolabelled CCKB/gastrin receptor ligand, [3H]-JB93182 (5[[[(1S)-[[(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-phenylethyla mino]-carbonyl]-6-[[(1-adamantylmethyl) amino]carbonyl]-indole), to sites in rat cortex membranes. 2. The [3H]-JB93182 was 97% radiochemically pure as assessed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) and was not degraded by incubation (150 min) with rat cortex membranes. 3. Saturation analysis indicated that [3H]-JB93182 labelled a homogeneous population of receptors in rat cortex membranes (pKD=9.48+/-0.08, Bmax=3.61+/-0.65 pmol g(-1) tissue, nH=0.97+/-0.02, n=5). The pKD was not significantly different when estimated by association-dissociation analysis (pKD=9.73+/-0.11; n=10). 4. In competition studies, the low affinity of the CCKA receptor antagonists, L-364,718; SR27897 and 2-NAP, suggest that, under the assay conditions employed, [3H]-JB93182 (0.3 nM) does not label CCKA receptors in the rat cortex. 5. The affinity estimates obtained for reference CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonists were indistinguishable from one of the affinity values obtained when a two site model was used to interpret [125I]-BH-CCK8S competition curves obtained in the same tissue (Harper et al., 1999). 6. This study provides further evidence for the existence of two CCKB/gastrin sites in rat cortex. [3H]-JB93182 appears to label selectively sites previously designated as gastrin-G1 and therefore it may be a useful compound for the further discrimination and characterization of these putative receptor subtypes. (+info)