Mutations in the zebrafish unmask shared regulatory pathways controlling the development of catecholaminergic neurons.
The mechanism by which pluripotent progenitors give rise to distinct classes of mature neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. To address this issue we undertook a genetic screen for mutations which affect the commitment and differentiation of catecholaminergic (CA) [dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic (NA), and adrenergic] neurons in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The identified mutations constitute five complementation groups. motionless and foggy affect the number and differentiation state of hypothalamic DA, telencephalic DA, retinal DA, locus coeruleus (LC) NA, and sympathetic NA neurons. The too few mutation leads to a specific reduction in the number of hypothalamic DA neurons. no soul lacks arch-associated NA cells and has defects in pharyngeal arches, and soulless lacks both arch-associated and LC cell groups. Our analyses suggest that the genes defined by these mutations regulate different steps in the differentiation of multipotent CA progenitors. They further reveal an underlying universal mechanism for the control of CA cell fates, which involve combinatorial usage of regulatory genes. (+info)
Catecholamines participate in the induction of ornithine decarboxylase gene expression in normal and hyperplastic mouse kidney.
In the quinazoline antifolate (CB 3717)-induced hyperplastic kidney model, a remarkable increase of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was paralleled by a smaller, but highly significant augmentation of the ODC transcript level. Catecholamine depletion, evoked by reserpine, strongly impaired antifolate-induced ODC expression; the enzyme activity was almost completely abolished while the mRNA level decreased by 60%. Moreover, under conditions of a depleted catecholamine pool, kidney enlargement was significantly reduced confirming our earlier reports on the indispensability of ODC induction for renal hyperplasia (M. Manteuffel-Cymborowska et al. , Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1182 (1993) 133-141). In normal mouse kidney catecholamines appeared to be inducers of ODC expression. Use of selective agonists of catecholamine receptors demonstrated the importance of dopamine D2 receptors, and to a lower extent beta adrenoreceptors, in the catecholamine mediation of induction of ODC activity and of ODC mRNA levels. These increases were not abolished by an antiandrogen, casodex, suggesting that catecholamine control of ODC expression is an androgen receptor-independent process. The results obtained point to the critical role of renal catecholamines; these biogenic amines are not only involved in the regulation of ODC expression in normal kidney but are also required for the induction of ODC in hyperplastic kidney evoked by antifolate and, as shown recently (M. Manteuffel-Cymborowska et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1356 (1997) 292-298), in testosterone-induced hypertrophic kidney. (+info)
(-)1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)BPAP], a selective enhancer of the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain.
1. The brain constituents beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and tryptamine enhance the impulse propagation mediated transmitter release (exocytosis) from the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain ('catecholaminergic/serotoninergic activity enhancer, CAE/SAE, effect'). (-)Deprenyl (Selegiline) and (-)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane [(-)PPAP] are amphetamine derived CAE substances devoid of the catecholamine releasing property. 2. By changing the aromatic ring in PPAP we developed highly potent and selective CAE/SAE substances, structurally unrelated to the amphetamines. Out of 65 newly synthetized compounds, a tryptamine derived structure, (-)1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane [(-)BPAP] was selected as a potential follower of (-)deprenyl in the clinic and as a reference compound for further analysis of the CAE/SAE mechanism in the mammalian brain. 3. (-)BPAP significantly enhanced in 0.18 micromol 1(-1) concentration the impulse propagation mediated release of [(3)H]-noradrenaline and [(3)H]-dopamine and in 36 nmol 1(-1) concentration the release of [(3)H]-serotonin from the isolated brain stem of rats. The amount of catecholamines and serotonin released from isolated discrete rat brain regions (dopamine from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium, noradrenaline from the locus coeruleus and serotonin from the raphe) enhanced significantly in the presence of 10(-12) - 10(-14) M (-)BPAP. BPAP protected cultured hippocampal neurons from the neurotoxic effect of beta-amyloid in 10(-14) M concentration. In rats (-)BPAP significantly enhanced the activity of the catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brain 30 min after acute injection of 0.1 microg kg(-1) s.c. In the shuttle box, (-)BPAP in rats was about 130 times more potent than (-)deprenyl in antagonizing tetrabenazine induced inhibition of performance. (+info)
Tetrahydrobiopterin is released from and causes preferential death of catecholaminergic cells by oxidative stress.
The underlying cause of the selective death of the nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease is not fully understood. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is synthesized exclusively in the monoaminergic, including dopaminergic, cells and serves as an endogenous and obligatory cofactor for syntheses of dopamine and nitric oxide. Because BH4 contributes to the syntheses of these two potential oxidative stressors and also undergoes autoxidation, thereby producing reactive oxygen species, it was possible that BH4 may play a role in the selective vulnerability of dopaminergic cells. BH4 given extracellularly was cytotoxic to catecholamine cells CATH. a, SK-N-BE(2)C, and PC12, but not to noncatecholamine cells RBL-2H3, CCL-64, UMR-106-01, or TGW-nu-1. This was not caused by increased dopamine or nitric oxide, because inhibition of their syntheses did not attenuate the damage and BH4 did not raise their cellular levels. Dihydrobiopterin and biopterin were not toxic, indicating that the fully reduced form is responsible. The toxicity was caused by generation of reactive oxygen species, because catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase protected the cells from the BH4-induced demise. Furthermore, thiol agents, such as reduced glutathione, dithiothreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol, and N-acetylcysteine were highly protective. The BH4 toxicity was initiated extracellularly, because elevation of intracellular BH4 by sepiapterin did not result in cell damage. BH4 was spontaneously released from the cells of its synthesis to a large extent, and the release was not further enhanced by calcium influx. This BH4-induced cytotoxicity may represent a mechanism by which selective degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and neurons occur. (+info)
Differential postnatal development of catecholamine and serotonin inputs to identified neurons in prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkey.
The monoaminergic innervation of cerebral cortex has long been implicated in its development. Methods now exist to examine catecholamine and serotonin inputs to identified neurons in the cerebral cortex. We have quantified such inputs on pyramidal and nonpyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 2 weeks to 10 years. Individual layer III neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow and double-immunostained with axons containing either tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The filled cells were reconstructed, and putative appositions between the axons and dendritic spines and shafts were quantified at high magnification using light microscopy. The density of catecholamine appositions on pyramidal neurons matures slowly, reaching only half the adult level by 6 months of age and thereafter rising gradually to adult levels by 2 years of age. By contrast, the density of serotonin appositions on pyramidal cells reaches the adult level before the second week after birth. The average adult pyramidal neuron in layer III of area 9m receives three times stronger input from catecholaminergic than from serotoninergic axons. The overall density of both inputs to interneurons does not appear to change during postnatal development. Selective changes in the TH innervation of pyramidal cells against a backdrop of constant TH innervation of interneurons suggest that the balance between excitation and inhibition may change developmentally in the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, 5-HT innervation of both types of neurons remains relatively constant over the age range studied. (+info)
Mechanisms of abnormal calcium homeostasis in mutations responsible for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a heritable arrhythmia unmasked by exertion or stress and is characterized by triggered activity and sudden cardiac death. In this study, we simulated mutations in 2 genes linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, the first located in calsequestrin (CSQN2) and the second in the ryanodine receptor (RyR2). The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanistic basis for spontaneous Ca2+ release events that lead to delayed afterdepolarizations in affected patients. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) luminal Ca2+ sensing was incorporated into a model of the human ventricular myocyte, and CSQN2 mutations were modeled by simulating disrupted RyR2 luminal Ca2+ sensing. In voltage-clamp mode, the mutant CSQN2 model recapitulated the smaller calcium transients, smaller time to peak calcium transient, and accelerated recovery from inactivation seen in experiments. In current clamp mode, in the presence of beta stimulation, we observed delayed afterdepolarizations, suggesting that accelerated recovery of RyR2 induced by impaired luminal Ca2+ sensing underlies the triggered activity observed in mutant CSQN2-expressing myocytes. In current-clamp mode, in a model of mutant RyR2 that is characterized by reduced FKBP12.6 binding to the RyR2 on beta stimulation, the impaired coupled gating characteristic of these mutations was modeled by reducing cooperativity of RyR2 activation. In current-clamp mode, the mutant RyR2 model exhibited increased diastolic RyR2 open probability that resulted in formation of delayed afterdepolarizations. In conclusion, these minimal order models of mutant CSQN2 and RyR2 provide plausible mechanisms by which defects in RyR2 gating may lead to the cellular triggers for arrhythmia, with implications for the development of targeted therapy. (+info)
Blockade of catecholamine-induced growth by adrenergic and dopaminergic receptor antagonists in Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica.
BACKGROUND: The ability of catecholamines to stimulate bacterial growth was first demonstrated just over a decade ago. Little is still known however, concerning the nature of the putative bacterial adrenergic and/or dopaminergic receptor(s) to which catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) may bind and exert their effects, or even whether the binding properties of such a receptor are similar between different species. RESULTS: Use of specific catecholamine receptor antagonists revealed that only alpha, and not beta, adrenergic antagonists were capable of blocking norepinephrine and epinephrine-induced growth, while antagonism of dopamine-mediated growth was achieved with the use of a dopaminergic antagonist. Both adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists were highly specific in their mechanism of action, which did not involve blockade of catecholamine-facilitated iron-acquisition. Use of radiolabeled norepinephrine suggested that the adrenergic antagonists could be acting by inhibiting catecholamine uptake. CONCLUSION: The present data demonstrates that the ability of a specific pathogen to respond to a particular hormone is dependent upon the host anatomical region in which the pathogen causes disease as well as the neuroanatomical specificity to which production of the particular hormone is restricted; and that both are anatomically coincidental to each other. As such, the present report suggests that pathogens with a high degree of exclusivity to the gastrointestinal tract have evolved response systems to neuroendocrine hormones such as norepinephrine and dopamine, but not epinephrine, which are found with the enteric nervous system. (+info)
Modular structure of microcin H47 and colicin V.
Microcins are gene-encoded peptide antibiotics produced by enterobacteria that act on strains of gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we concentrated on higher-molecular-mass microcins, i.e., those possessing 60 or more amino acids. They can be subdivided into unmodified and posttranslationally modified peptides. In both cases, they exhibit conserved C-terminal sequences that appear to be characteristic of each subgroup. In the hypothesis that these sequences could correspond to domains, gene fusions between the activity genes for the unmodified microcin colicin V and the modified microcin H47 were constructed. These two microcins differ in their mode of synthesis, uptake, target, and specific immunity. Through this experimental approach, chimeric peptides with exchanged C-terminal sequences were encoded. Cells carrying the fusions in different genetic contexts were then assayed for antibiotic production. Many of them produced antibiotic activities with recombinant properties: the toxicity of one microcin and the mode of uptake of the other. The results led to the identification of a modular structure of colicin V and microcin H47, with the recognition of two domains in their peptide chains: a toxic N-terminal domain and an uptake C-terminal domain. This modular design would be shared by other microcins from each subgroup. (+info)