Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes.
BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling. (+info)
Evidence for beta3-adrenoceptor subtypes in relaxation of the human urinary bladder detrusor: analysis by molecular biological and pharmacological methods.
The purpose of the present study was to confirm the presence of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the relaxation of human urinary bladder detrusor tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR); direct sequencing of the PCR product, in situ hybridization; and isometric contraction. Using reverse transcription-PCR, the mRNAs of three receptor subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) were expressed in the human urinary bladder detrusor tissue. Direct sequencing of the PCR product of the above beta3-adrenoceptor revealed no mutation in the amplified regions. In situ hybridization with digoxygenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe revealed the presence of the mRNA of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder. The relaxant effects of isoproterenol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist); ZD7114, BRL37344, and CGP12177A (putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonists); and SR59230A (a putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist) were tested using an isometric contraction technique. Isoproterenol in either the presence or absence of both atenolol (a beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) and butoxamine (a beta2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) revealed a relaxant effect on the carbachol-induced contraction of the human urinary bladder detrusor. Both BRL37344 and CGP12177A also revealed relaxant effects on the human urinary bladder detrusor, but ZD7114 did not elicit any relaxation. These results suggest that beta3-adrenoceptor may have some role in urine storage in the human urinary bladder. (+info)
beta3-adrenoceptor control the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through a cAMP/protein kinase A-independent pathway.
In human cardiac myocytes, we have previously identified a functional beta3-adrenoceptor in which stimulation reduces action potential duration. Surprisingly, in cardiac biopsies obtained from cystic fibrosis patients, beta3-adrenoceptor agonists produced no effects on action potential duration. This result suggests the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride current in the electrophysiological effects of beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in non-cystic fibrosis tissues. We therefore investigated the control of CFTR activity by human beta3-adrenoceptors in a recombinant system: A549 human cells were intranuclearly injected with plasmids encoding CFTR and beta3-adrenoceptors. CFTR activity was functionally assayed using the 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescent probe and the patch-clamp technique. Injection of CFTR-cDNA alone led to the expression of a functional CFTR protein activated by cAMP or cGMP. Co-expression of CFTR (but not of mutated DeltaF508-CFTR) with high levels of beta3-adrenoceptor produced an increased halide permeability under base-line conditions that was not further sensitive to cAMP or beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that CFTR channels were permanently activated in cells co-expressing CFTR and a high level of beta3-adrenoceptor. Permanent CFTR activation was not associated with elevated intracellular cAMP or cGMP levels. When the expression level of beta3-adrenoceptor was lowered, CFTR was not activated under base-line conditions but became sensitive to beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation (isoproterenol plus nadolol, SR 58611, or CGP 12177). This later effect was not prevented by protein kinase A inhibitors. Our results provide molecular evidence that CFTR but not mutated DeltaF508-CFTR is regulated by beta3-adrenoceptors expression through a protein kinase A-independent pathway. (+info)
The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of leptin synthesis in C57BL/6 mice.
The objectives of this study were to determine whether leptin synthesis is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and if so whether beta-adrenergic receptors mediate this effect. We show that sympathetic blockade by reserpine increases leptin mRNA levels in brown but not white adipose tissue, while acute cold-exposure decreases leptin expression 10-fold in brown adipose tissue and 2-fold in white adipose tissue. The cold-induced reduction in leptin mRNA can be prevented by a combination of propranolol and SR 59230A but not by either antagonist alone, indicating that beta3-adrenergic receptors and classical beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptors both mediate responses to sympathetic stimulation. Circulating leptin levels reflect synthesis in white adipose tissue but not in brown adipose tissue. (+info)
Targeted construction of phosphorylation-independent beta-arrestin mutants with constitutive activity in cells.
Arrestin proteins play a key role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently we proposed a molecular mechanism whereby arrestin preferentially binds to the activated and phosphorylated form of its cognate GPCR. To test the model, we introduced two different types of mutations into beta-arrestin that were expected to disrupt two crucial elements that make beta-arrestin binding to receptors phosphorylation-dependent. We found that two beta-arrestin mutants (Arg169 --> Glu and Asp383 --> Ter) (Ter, stop codon) are indeed "constitutively active." In vitro these mutants bind to the agonist-activated beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) regardless of its phosphorylation status. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes these beta-arrestin mutants effectively desensitize beta2AR in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Constitutively active beta-arrestin mutants also effectively desensitize delta opioid receptor (DOR) and restore the agonist-induced desensitization of a truncated DOR lacking the critical G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites. The kinetics of the desensitization induced by phosphorylation-independent mutants in the absence of receptor phosphorylation appears identical to that induced by wild type beta-arrestin + GRK3. Either of the mutations could have occurred naturally and made receptor kinases redundant, raising the question of why a more complex two-step mechanism (receptor phosphorylation followed by arrestin binding) is universally used. (+info)
beta2-adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol prevents Fas-induced liver apoptosis and death in mice.
Stimulation of the cAMP-signaling pathway modulates apoptosis in several cell types and inhibits Jo2-mediated apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes. No information is yet available as to whether the hepatic beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) expression level, including beta2-AR-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation, modulates hepatocyte sensitivity to apoptosis in vivo or whether this sensitivity can be modified by beta2-AR ligands. We have examined this using C57BL/6 mice, in which hepatic beta2-AR densities are low, and transgenic F28 mice, which overexpress beta2-ARs and have elevated basal liver adenylyl cyclase activity. The F28 mice were resistant to Jo2-induced liver apoptosis and death. The beta-AR antagonist propranolol sensitized the F28 livers to Jo2. In normal mice clenbuterol, a beta2-AR-specific agonist, considerably reduced Jo2-induced liver apoptosis and death; salbutamol, another beta2-AR-selective agonist, also reduced Jo2-induced apoptosis and retarded death but with less efficacy than clenbuterol; and propranolol blocked the protective effect of clenbuterol. This indicates that the expression level of functional beta2-ARs modulates Fas-regulated liver apoptosis and that this apoptosis can be inhibited in vivo by giving beta2-AR agonists. This may well form the basis for a new therapeutic approach to diseases involving abnormal apoptosis. (+info)
Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea.
Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization. (+info)
Norepinephrine stimulates lymphoid cell mobilization from the perfused rat spleen via beta-adrenergic receptors.
The possibility that norepinephrine (NE) influences lymphoid cell outflow independently of its vasoconstrictor action was investigated in the perfused rat spleen. Using agents that affect the vasoconstrictor tonus of the spleen, we observed an inverse correlation between flow resistance and splenic cell output. The curve obtained served as a reference for evaluating effects of different treatments on the number of cells that are mobilized at defined levels of flow resistance. Perfusion of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol either alone or in combination with NE lowered splenic leukocyte outflow clearly beyond the number of cells expected at the corresponding flow resistance. No comparable effects were observed when the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine was perfused. When the vasoconstrictor effect of NE was counteracted by papaverine, splenic cell outflow was significantly higher than expected for the level of flow resistance attained. Furthermore, when NE was perfused together with endotoxin, which does not inhibit the vasoconstriction induced by catecholamines, splenic cell mobilization was severalfold higher than expected at increased flow resistance. Propranolol abrogated this effect to a large extent. Furthermore, perfusion of the beta-agonist isoproterenol stimulated lymphoid cell outflow from the spleen despite increased flow resistance. These studies show a dual effect of NE on cell mobilization from the spleen: cell retention by decreasing blood flow and stimulation of cell output by a beta-adrenergically mediated, smooth muscle-independent mechanism. (+info)