[3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum.
1. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors. 2. In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0 +/- 0.04 and 7.9 +/- 0.11 (n = 3) and Bmax values of 9.9 +/- 0.3 and 21.5 +/- 4.9 fmol mg(-1) protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > or = 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone > or = LSD > or = metergoline > ritanserin > > pindolol. 3. Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 microM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone > LSD > metergoline > mesulergine = ritanserin > pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 microM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 microM) and GR 113808 (1 microM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-MeOT > sumatriptan. 4. In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present. (+info)
M100907, a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.
In a recent study using Wistar rats, the serotonergic 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin and risperidone reduced the disruptive effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine on prepulse inhibition (PPI), suggesting that there is an interaction between serotonin and glutamate in the modulation of PPI. In contrast, studies using the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in Sprague-Dawley rats found no effect with 5-HT2 antagonists. To test the hypothesis that strain differences might explain the discrepancy in these findings, risperidone was tested for its ability to reduce the PPI-disruptive effects of dizocilpine in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, to determine which serotonergic receptor subtype may mediate this effect, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (formerly MDL 100,907) and the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SDZ SER 082 were tested against dizocilpine. Recent studies have found that the PPI-disruptive effects of PCP are reduced by the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. Furthermore, the alpha 1 receptor agonist cirazoline disrupts PPI. As risperidone and M100907 have affinity at the alpha 1 receptor, a final study examined whether M100907 would block the effects of cirazoline on PPI. Risperidone partially, but nonsignificantly, reduced the effects of dizocilpine in Wistar rats, although this effect was smaller than previously reported. Consistent with previous studies, risperidone did not alter the effects of dizocilpine in Sprague-Dawley rats. Most importantly, M100907 pretreatment fully blocked the effect of dizocilpine in both strains; whereas SDZ SER 082 had no effect. M100907 had no influence on PPI by itself and did not reduce the effects of cirazoline on PPI. These studies confirm the suggestion that serotonin and glutamate interact in modulating PPI and indicate that the 5-HT2A receptor subtype mediates this interaction. Furthermore, this interaction occurs in at least two rat strains. (+info)
RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor silences constitutive activity.
RNA transcripts encoding the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor (5-HT2CR) undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events at up to five specific sites. Compared with rat brain, human brain samples expressed higher levels of RNA transcripts encoding the amino acids valine-serine-valine (5-HT2C-VSV) and valine-glycine-valine (5-HT2C-VGV) at positions 156, 158, and 160, respectively. Agonist stimulation of the nonedited human receptor (5-HT2C-INI) and the edited 5-HT2C-VSV and 5-HT2C-VGV receptor variants stably expressed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that serotonergic agonists were less potent at the edited receptors. Competition binding experiments revealed a guanine nucleotide-sensitive serotonin high affinity state only for the 5-HT2C-INI receptor; the loss of high affinity agonist binding to the edited receptor demonstrates that RNA editing generates unique 5-HT2CRs that couple less efficiently to G proteins. This reduced G protein coupling for the edited isoforms is primarily due to silencing of the constitutive activity of the nonedited 5-HT2CR. The distinctions in agonist potency and constitutive activity suggest that different edited 5-HT2CRs exhibit distinct responses to serotonergic ligands and further imply that RNA editing represents a novel mechanism for controlling physiological signaling at serotonergic synapses. (+info)
Attenuation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
Atypical neuroleptics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than typical neuroleptics. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics is that they have equivalent or higher antagonist affinity for 5-HT2 than for dopamine D2 receptors. Our aim was to identify which 5-HT2 receptor contributed to the atypical profile. Catalepsy was defined as rats remaining immobile over a horizontal metal bar for at least 30 s, 90 min after dosing. Radioligand binding assays were carried out with homogenates of human recombinant 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors expressed in Human Embryo Kidney (HEK293) cells. Haloperidol (1.13 mg kg(-1) i.p.) induced catalepsy in all experiments. The selective 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist, SB-228357 (0.32-10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy whereas the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor antagonists, MDL-100907 (0.003-0.1 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and SB-215505 (0.1-3.2 mg kg(-1) p.o.) respectively did not reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The data suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors in the anticataleptic action of SB-228357. (+info)
Novel actions of inverse agonists on 5-HT2C receptor systems.
In cell systems where ligand-independent receptor activity is optimized (such as when receptors are overexpressed or mutated), acute treatment with inverse agonists reduces basal effector activity whereas prolonged exposure leads to sensitization of receptor systems and receptor up-regulation. Few studies, however, have reported effects of inverse agonists in systems where nonmutated receptors are expressed at relatively low density. Here, we investigated the effects of inverse agonists at human serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors expressed stably in Chinese hamster ovary cells ( approximately 250 fmol/mg protein). In these cells, there is no receptor reserve for 5-HT and 5-HT2C inverse agonists did not reduce basal inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation nor arachidonic acid (AA) release but behaved as simple competitive antagonists, suggesting that these receptors are not overexpressed. Prolonged treatment (24 h) with inverse agonists enhanced selectively 5-HT2C-mediated IP accumulation but not AA release. The enhancing effect occurred within 4 h of treatment, reversed within 3 to 4 h (after 24-h treatment), and could be blocked with neutral antagonists or weak positive agonists. The enhanced responsiveness was not due to receptor up-regulation but may involve changes in the expression of the G protein, Galphaq/11 and possibly Galpha12 and Galpha13. Interestingly, 24-h exposure to inverse agonists acting at 5-HT2C receptors also selectively enhanced IP accumulation, but not AA release, elicited by activation of endogenous purinergic receptors. These data suggest that actions of inverse agonists may be mediated through effects on receptor systems that are not direct targets for these drugs. (+info)
Effects of the 5-HT2C/2B antagonist SB 206553 on hyperactivity induced by cocaine.
Serotonin (5-HT) appears to play a modulatory role in the behavioral effects of cocaine, although the impact of 5-HT2C receptors in this control has not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to establish whether acute pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2C/2B antagonist SB 206553 (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg i.p.) altered hyperactivity induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) using an open field activity system which recorded central, peripheral, and rearing activity. Pretreatment with 1 and 2 mg/kg of SB 206553 attenuated cocaine-induced central and peripheral activity, respectively; rearing was also attenuated by the latter dose. However, the 4-mg/kg dose of SB 206553 significantly enhanced the effects of cocaine on peripheral activity. Based upon the present observations and an interpretation of previous research to implicate 5-HT2C receptor control of the dopamine (DA) mesoaccumbens pathways in behavior, a thorough and systematic analysis of the role of 5-HT2C (and 5-HT2B) receptors in psychostimulant-induced behaviors is warranted. (+info)
Serotonin-2C receptor pre-mRNA editing in rat brain and in vitro by splice site variants of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1.
The interferon-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) is an RNA editing enzyme implicated in the site-selective deamination of adenosine to inosine in cellular pre-mRNAs. The pre-mRNA for the rat serotonin-2C receptor (5-HT2CR) possesses four editing sites (A, B, C, and D), which undergo A-to-I nucleotide conversions that alter the signaling function of the encoded G-protein-coupled receptor. Measurements of 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA editing in vitro revealed site-specific deamination catalyzed by ADAR1. Three splice site variants, ADAR1-a, -b, and -c, all efficiently edited the A site of 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA, but the D site did not serve as an efficient substrate for any of the ADAR1 variants. Mutational analysis of the three double-stranded (ds) RNA binding motifs present in ADAR1 revealed a different relative importance of the individual dsRNA binding motifs for deamination of the A site of 5-HT2CR and synthetic dsRNA substrates. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA was most highly expressed in the choroid plexus of rat brain. However, ADAR1 and the related deaminase ADAR2 showed significant expression in all regions of the brain examined, including cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and striatum, where the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA was extensively edited. (+info)
Agonist-directed signaling of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors: differences between serotonin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
For more than 40 years the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been known to modify serotonin neurotransmission. With the advent of molecular and cellular techniques, we are beginning to understand the complexity of LSD's actions at the serotonin 5-HT2 family of receptors. Here, we discuss evidence that signaling of LSD at 5-HT2C receptors differs from the endogenous agonist serotonin. In addition, RNA editing of the 5-HT2C receptor dramatically alters the ability of LSD to stimulate phosphatidylinositol signaling. These findings provide a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism(s) of partial agonism. (+info)