(1/616) Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation among smokers.

This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes (smokers) or a similar resting interval (nonsmokers). Assessment of PA included both platelet secretion and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) binding. Platelet 5HT2A receptor binding and saturation were tested using [3H]LSD, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Platelet 5HT2A receptor density was increased among smokers versus nonsmokers (82.7+/-67.7 versus 40.0+/-20.2 fmol/mg protein; P<0.005), and there was a dose-dependent relationship between receptor density and packs/d among smokers. Baseline wound-induced GPIIb/IIIa binding at 1 minute and GPIIb/IIIa binding in response to collagen stimulation in vitro was increased among smokers (P<0.05); there were no changes in PA among smokers after smoking, and platelet secretion was not elevated among smokers. Depressive symptoms were associated with 5HT2A receptor density among nonsmokers (P<0.005), but no such relationship was evident among smokers; PA was unrelated to 5HT2A receptor density in either group. The findings indicate that smoking is associated with increased platelet serotonin receptor density and with increased GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding, although these 2 factors are not related to each other or to depressive symptoms among smokers. Serotonergic dysfunction may be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease among smokers.  (+info)

(2/616) No correlation between A(-1438)G polymorphism in 5-HT2A receptor gene promoter and the density of frontal cortical 5-HT2A receptors in schizophrenia.

The A(-1438)G promoter polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2a receptor (5-HT2AR) gene and its influence on the cortical density of 5-HT2AR was studied using brain tissue donated at autopsy from 58 schizophrenic and 64 non-schizophrenic subjects. A linkage between genotypes for the A(-1438)G and a T102C polymorphic site identified in a previous study was observed. Our data suggest no association of the A(-1438)G polymorphism with schizophrenia and no effect of the promoter genotype upon 5-HT2AR densities in either the schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic groups.  (+info)

(3/616) Precontraction with elevated concentrations of extracellular potassium enables both 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A "silent" receptors in rabbit ear artery.

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of a small (<10%) K+-induced precontraction on the response to vasoconstrictors in the rabbit aorta and ear artery rings. In both tissues, 15 mM K+ shifted the methoxamine concentration response curve (CRC) approximately 2.4-fold to the left. There was no change in the sensitivity of the control and amplified CRCs to the alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (100 nM). In the aorta, the CRC for serotonin was shifted 4.5-fold to the left in the presence of 15 mM K+, and both the control and amplified CRCs were antagonized equally by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (10 nM). In contrast, 16 and 20 mM K+ caused up to an approximately 60-fold leftward shift of the serotonin CRC in the rabbit ear artery. This effect of 16 mM K+ was not altered by mechanical removal of the endothelium or by in vitro denervation using 6-hydroxydopamine. The K+-amplified CRC was insensitive to 100 nM prazosin at serotonin concentrations below 3 microM, but was significantly antagonized by 10 nM ketanserin, suggesting that 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the K+-amplified response. The 5-HT1B-selective antagonist, GR 127935, did not affect control responses to serotonin, but significantly blocked the K+-amplified response. Furthermore, the combination of ketanserin and GR 127935 produced a significantly greater blockade of the amplified response than either antagonist alone, supporting the conclusion that both 5-HT2A and 5-HT1B receptors mediate the K+-amplified response to serotonin in the rabbit ear artery.  (+info)

(4/616) M100907, a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

In a recent study using Wistar rats, the serotonergic 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin and risperidone reduced the disruptive effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine on prepulse inhibition (PPI), suggesting that there is an interaction between serotonin and glutamate in the modulation of PPI. In contrast, studies using the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in Sprague-Dawley rats found no effect with 5-HT2 antagonists. To test the hypothesis that strain differences might explain the discrepancy in these findings, risperidone was tested for its ability to reduce the PPI-disruptive effects of dizocilpine in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, to determine which serotonergic receptor subtype may mediate this effect, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (formerly MDL 100,907) and the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SDZ SER 082 were tested against dizocilpine. Recent studies have found that the PPI-disruptive effects of PCP are reduced by the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. Furthermore, the alpha 1 receptor agonist cirazoline disrupts PPI. As risperidone and M100907 have affinity at the alpha 1 receptor, a final study examined whether M100907 would block the effects of cirazoline on PPI. Risperidone partially, but nonsignificantly, reduced the effects of dizocilpine in Wistar rats, although this effect was smaller than previously reported. Consistent with previous studies, risperidone did not alter the effects of dizocilpine in Sprague-Dawley rats. Most importantly, M100907 pretreatment fully blocked the effect of dizocilpine in both strains; whereas SDZ SER 082 had no effect. M100907 had no influence on PPI by itself and did not reduce the effects of cirazoline on PPI. These studies confirm the suggestion that serotonin and glutamate interact in modulating PPI and indicate that the 5-HT2A receptor subtype mediates this interaction. Furthermore, this interaction occurs in at least two rat strains.  (+info)

(5/616) Attenuation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.

Atypical neuroleptics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than typical neuroleptics. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics is that they have equivalent or higher antagonist affinity for 5-HT2 than for dopamine D2 receptors. Our aim was to identify which 5-HT2 receptor contributed to the atypical profile. Catalepsy was defined as rats remaining immobile over a horizontal metal bar for at least 30 s, 90 min after dosing. Radioligand binding assays were carried out with homogenates of human recombinant 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors expressed in Human Embryo Kidney (HEK293) cells. Haloperidol (1.13 mg kg(-1) i.p.) induced catalepsy in all experiments. The selective 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist, SB-228357 (0.32-10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy whereas the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor antagonists, MDL-100907 (0.003-0.1 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and SB-215505 (0.1-3.2 mg kg(-1) p.o.) respectively did not reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The data suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors in the anticataleptic action of SB-228357.  (+info)

(6/616) T102C polymorphism in the 5HT2A gene and schizophrenia: relation to phenotype and drug response variability.

Although genes play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia, no major genes involved in this disease have been identified. However, several genes with small effect have been reported, though inconsistently, to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Recently, the 5HT2A 2 allele (T102C polymorphism) was reported to be over-represented in patients with schizophrenia. Other reports have found an excess of allele 2(C) only in schizophrenic patients who are resistant to clozapine, not in those who respond to clozapine. In this study, the 5HT2A receptor allele 2 frequencies were compared between 2 groups of patients with schizophrenia (39 responders and 63 nonresponders) based on long-term outcome and response to typical neuroleptics. A control group of 90 healthy volunteers screened for mental disorders was also included. Genotype 2/2 tended to be more frequent in patients with schizophrenia with poor long-term outcome and poor response to typical neuroleptics (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.09). This difference was significant in men (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.054) but not in women. In addition, the age at first contact with psychiatric care was significantly younger in the patients with schizophrenia with genotype 2/2 than in patients with genotype 1/1. These result suggest that the 5HT2A-receptor gene may play a role in a subset of schizophrenia characterized by poor long-term outcome and poor response to neuroleptics.  (+info)

(7/616) Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine), a novel regulator of glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

In this study we show that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) causes a rapid stimulation in glucose uptake by approximately 50% in both L6 myotubes and isolated rat skeletal muscle. This activation is mediated via the 5-HT2A receptor, which is expressed in L6, rat, and human skeletal muscle. In L6 cells, expression of the 5-HT2A receptor is developmentally regulated based on the finding that receptor abundance increases by over 3-fold during differentiation from myoblasts to myotubes. Stimulation of the 5-HT2A receptor using methylserotonin (m-HT), a selective 5-HT2A agonist, increased muscle glucose uptake in a manner similar to that seen in response to 5-HT. The agonist-mediated stimulation in glucose uptake was attributable to an increase in the plasma membrane content of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. The stimulatory effects of 5-HT and m-HT were suppressed in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of ketanserin (a selective 5-HT2A antagonist) providing further evidence that the increase in glucose uptake was specifically mediated via the 5-HT2A receptor. Treatment of L6 cells with insulin resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1, increased cellular production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-phosphate and a 41-fold activation in protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activity. In contrast, m-HT did not modulate IRS1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, or PKB activity. The present results indicate that rat and human skeletal muscle both express the 5-HT2A receptor and that 5-HT and specific 5-HT2A agonists can rapidly stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by a mechanism which does not depend upon components that participate in the insulin signaling pathway.  (+info)

(8/616) Identification of mRNA for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in human coronary arteries.

OBJECTIVE: Although pharmacological studies have indicated that serotonin (5-HT)-evoked contraction of the human coronary artery is mediated by 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptors, the gene expression of 5-HT receptors is still unclear. We examined mRNA expression of 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in human coronary arteries. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from human coronary arteries of 14 patients at autopsy by the guanidine method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ribonuclease protection assays were performed to identify 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor mRNA expression in human coronary artery. RESULTS: By RT-PCR, 5-HT1b, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B mRNAs were detected in all of the 14 patients. 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT1E mRNAs were detected in only some patients. However, neither 5-HT1F mRNA nor 5-HT2C mRNA was detected in any patient. By ribonuclease protection assay, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A signals were detected in all patients examined, but neither 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D nor 5-HT2B signal was detected in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Of 5-HT1/2 receptor subtypes, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptor mRNAs were predominantly expressed in human coronary arteries. Our finding provides molecular evidence that the 5-HT1B receptor may be the 5-HT1-like receptor which mediates constriction of human coronary arteries.  (+info)