5-HT1A receptors increase excitability of spinal motoneurons by inhibiting a TASK-1-like K+ current in the adult turtle.
The modulatory effects of serotonin mediated by 5-HT1A receptors in adult spinal motoneurons were investigated by intracellular recordings in a slice preparation from the turtle. In current-clamp mode, activation of 5-HT1A receptors by 8-OH-DPAT led to depolarization and an increase in input resistance in most motoneurons but caused hyperpolarization and a decrease in input resistance in the remaining smaller fraction of cells. When slices were preincubated in medium containing the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, 8-OH-DPAT had no effect. In voltage-clamp mode, with 1 mM CsCl in the bathing medium, 8-OH-DPAT consistently inhibited a leak current that was sensitive to extracellular acidification and anandamide, a TASK-1 channel blocker. In medium with a low pH, as in the presence of anandamide, 8-OH-DPAT had no effect. Our results show that activation of 5-HT1A receptors contributes to the excitatory effect of serotonin on spinal motoneurons by inhibition of a TASK-1 potassium channel leading to depolarization and increased input resistance. (+info)
Analysis of molecular determinants of affinity and relative efficacy of a series of R- and S-2-(dipropylamino)tetralins at the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor.
1. Factors influencing agonist affinity and relative efficacy have been studied for the 5-HT(1A) serotonin receptor using membranes of CHO cells expressing the human form of the receptor and a series of R-and S-2-(dipropylamino)tetralins (nonhydroxylated and monohydroxylated (5-OH, 6-OH, 7-OH, 8-OH) species). 2. Ligand binding studies were used to determine dissociation constants for agonist binding to the 5-HT(1A) receptor: (a) K(i) values for agonists were determined in competition versus the binding of the agonist [(3)H]-8-OH DPAT. Competition data were all fitted best by a one-binding site model. (b) K(i) values for agonists were also determined in competition versus the binding of the antagonist [(3)H]-NAD-199. Competition data were all fitted best by a two-binding site model, and agonist affinities for the higher (K(h)) and lower affinity (K(l)) sites were determined. 3. The ability of the agonists to activate the 5-HT(1A) receptor was determined using stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. Maximal effects of agonists (E(max)) and their potencies (EC(50)) were determined from concentration/response curves for stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. 4. K(l)/K(h) determined from ligand binding assays correlated with the relative efficacy (relative E(max)) of agonists determined in [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding assays. There was also a correlation between K(l)/K(h) and K(l)/EC(50) for agonists determined from ligand binding and [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding assays. 5. Simulations of agonist binding and effect data were performed using the Ternary Complex Model in order to assess the use of K(l)/K(h) for predicting the relative efficacy of agonists. (+info)
Serotonin upregulates the activity of phagocytosis through 5-HT1A receptors.
1 In this study, we investigated whether serotonin could regulate the in vitro activity of phagocytosis through 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin (5-HT(1A)) receptors. 2 Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured with serotonin and the activity of phagocytosis was assessed by the uptake of zymosan and latex particles added to the culture media. Specific binding of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT and immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-5-HT(1A)-receptor antibody were assayed in the macrophages. In addition, we took advantage of the availability of pharmacological inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) to explore its role in the regulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor. 3 Serotonin increased the in vitro activity of phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino)-tetralin (R(+)-8-OH-DPAT) reproduced these effects. Serotonin- or R(+)-8-OH-DPAT-induced increases in phagocytosis were blocked by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 and the NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Moreover, mouse peritoneal macrophages expressed specific binding sites for [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT when cultivated in the presence of zymosan or latex beads. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor protein in the macrophages. 4 These results show that serotonin can upregulate the activity of peritoneal macrophages through 5-HT(1A) receptors. (+info)
Investigation of the role of the serotonergic activity of certain subtype-selective alpha1A antagonists in the relaxant effect on the pregnant rat uterus in vitro.
Results from recent studies have shown that alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1A)-AR) antagonists could offer a new alternative in the treatment of preterm delivery. However, members of this group [2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride (WB4101), 5-methylurapidil (5-MU)] are known to influence serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine) (5-HT(1A)) receptors, too. Our objective was to clarify the role of their 5-HT(1A) activities in the uterus relaxant effect. RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA expression of the receptor subtypes in 22 day pregnant rat uteri. Isolated uteri were stimulated by 5-HT or electrical field to investigate the contraction-inhibiting effect and the 5-HT(1A) activity of the alpha(1A) antagonists. Both receptor subtypes are present in rat myometrium. 5-HT induced contractions were inhibited by the alpha(1A) antagonists. Besides shifting the dose-response curve of 5-HT to the right, 5-MU decreased its maximal effect. The alpha(1A) antagonists inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. 5-HT(1A) blockade increased the maximal effect of 5-MU but did not change that of WB4101. These results suggest that the contraction increase caused by 5-HT is mediated by alpha(1A) receptors. Serotonergic activity of alpha(1) antagonists and especially alpha(1A) antagonists should be investigated as it may alter their efficacy and could interfere with their side-effects. It is proposed that novel alpha(1A) antagonists should be designed with no 5-HT(1A) activity to achieve maximal relaxant effect. (+info)
Hyperforin-containing extracts of St John's wort fail to alter gene transcription in brain areas involved in HPA axis control in a long-term treatment regimen in rats.
We previously showed that a methanolic extract of St John's wort (SJW) (Hypericum) and hypericin, one of its active constituents, both have delayed regulation of genes that are involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hyperforin, another constituent of SJW, is active in vitro and has been proposed to be the active constituent for therapeutic efficacy in depression. We therefore examined if hyperforin has delayed effects on HPA axis control centers similar to those of Hypericum and hypericin. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to examine in rats the effects of short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (8 weeks) oral administration of two hyperforin preparations, fluoxetine (positive control), and haloperidol (negative control) on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of the HPA axis. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) given daily for 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks, significantly decreased levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA by 22% in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA by 23% in the locus coeruleus. Fluoxetine increased levels of mineralocorticoid (MR) (17%), glucocorticoid (GR) (18%), and 5-HT(1A) receptor (21%) mRNAs in the hippocampus at 8, but not 2, weeks. Comparable to haloperidol (1 mg/kg), neither the hyperforin-rich CO(2) extract (27 mg/kg) nor hyperforin-trimethoxybenzoate (8 mg/kg) altered mRNA levels in brain structures relevant for HPA axis control at either time point. These data suggest that hyperforin and hyperforin derivatives are not involved in the regulation of genes that control HPA axis function. (+info)
Flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug, lowers 5-HT and raises dopamine and noradrenaline in the rat prefrontal cortex dialysate: role of 5-HT(1A) receptors.
(1) Using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis in conscious, freely moving rats, we examined the effect of flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug with high affinity for human 5-HT(1A) receptors and four-50-fold lower affinity for 5-HT(2A) and D(4) receptors, on basal extracellular concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in selected regions of the rat brain. (2) Flibanserin at 3 and 10 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced extracellular 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex (by 30 and 45%) and dorsal raphe (35 and 44%), but had no effect on extracellular 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus. The 3 and 10 mg kg(-1) doses raised extracellular NA to a similar extent in the prefrontal cortex (47 and 50%). In all, 10 mg kg(-1) raised extracellular DA in the prefrontal cortex (63%) whereas 3 mg kg(-1) had no significant effect. (3) Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100,635 (0.3 mg kg(-1)) 30 min before 10 mg kg(-1) flibanserin completely antagonized the latter's effects on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA in the prefrontal cortex. WAY100,635 by itself had no effect on cortical extracellular monoamines. (4) The results show that the stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors plays a major role in the effect of flibanserin on brain extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA. (+info)
SSR181507, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor agonist. II: Behavioral profile predictive of an atypical antipsychotic activity.
SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-(((2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl)methyl)-8-az abicyclo(3.2.1)octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride) is a novel tropanemethanamine benzodioxane that displays antagonist activity at dopamine D(2) receptors and agonist activity at 5-HT(1A) receptors. SSR181507 antagonized apomorphine-induced climbing in mice and stereotypies in rats (ED(50) of 2 and 3.4 mg/kg i.p., respectively) and blocked D-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats at lower doses (0.3-1 mg/kg i.p.). At 1-10 mg/kg, it was found to disrupt active avoidance in mice. SSR181507 did not induce catalepsy in rats (MED>60 mg/kg i.p.) and antagonized (3-10 mg/kg i.p.) haloperidol-induced catalepsy. SSR181507 was also active in two models sensitive to antidepressant/anxiolytic drugs: in a guinea-pig pup/mother separation test, it decreased (1-3 mg/kg i.p.) the time spent vocalizing during the separation episode, and in a lithium-induced taste aversion procedure in rats, it partially reversed (3 mg/kg i.p.) the decrease of intake of a saccharin solution. Furthermore, SSR181507 increased (3 mg/kg i.p.) the latency time to paradoxical sleep in rats, an effect commonly observed with antidepressants. Coadministration of the selective 5-HT(1A) blocker SL88.0338 produced catalepsy and antagonized the effects of SSR181507 in the depression/anxiety tests, confirming the view that activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors confers an atypical profile on SSR181507, and is responsible for its antidepressant/anxiolytic properties. Finally, SSR181507 (1-3 mg/kg) did not affect memory performance in a Morris water maze task in rats. The pharmacological profile of SSR181507 suggests that it should control the symptoms of schizophrenia, in the absence of extrapyramidal signs and cognitive deficits, with the additional benefit of antidepressant/anxiolytic activities. (+info)
SSR181507, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist. I: Neurochemical and electrophysiological profile.
SSR181507 ((3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-az abicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine monohydrochloride) is a novel tropanemethanamine benzodioxane derivative that possesses high and selective affinities for D2-like and 5-HT(1A) receptors (K(I)=0.8, 0.2, and 0.2 nM for human D(2), D(3), and 5-HT(1A), respectively). In vivo, SSR181507 inhibited [(3)H]raclopride binding to D(2) receptors in the rat (ID(50)=0.9 and 1 mg/kg, i.p. in limbic system and striatum, respectively). It displayed D(2) antagonist and 5-HT(1A) agonist properties in the same concentration range in vitro (IC(50)=5.3 nM and EC(50)=2.3 nM, respectively, in the GTPgammaS model) and in the same dose range in vivo (ED(50)=1.6 and 0.7 mg/kg, i.p. on striatal DA and 5-HT synthesis, respectively, and 0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.v. on dorsal raphe nucleus firing rate). It selectively enhanced Fos immunoreactivity in mesocorticolimbic areas as compared to the striatum. This regional selectivity was confirmed in electrophysiological studies where SSR181507, given acutely (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.p.) or chronically (3 mg/kg, i.p., o.d., 22 days), increased or decreased, respectively, the number of spontaneous active DA cells in the ventral tegmental area, but not in the substantia nigra. Moreover, SSR181507 increased both basal and phasic DA efflux (as assessed by microdialysis and electrochemistry) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, but not in the striatum. This study shows that the combination of D(2) receptor antagonism and 5-HT(1A) agonism, in the same dose range, confers on SSR181507 a unique neurochemical and electrophysiological profile and suggests the potential of this compound for the treatment of the main dimensions of schizophrenia. (+info)