(1/3312) The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations.
The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function. (+info)
(2/3312) Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes.
Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (+info)
(3/3312) C-terminal Src kinase associates with ligand-stimulated insulin-like growth factor-I receptor.
Increased expression of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) protein-tyrosine kinase occurs in several kinds of cancer and induces neoplastic transformation in fibroblast cell lines. The transformed phenotype can be reversed by interfering with the function of the IGF-IR. The IGF-IR is required for transformation by a number of viral and cellular oncoproteins, including SV40 large T antigen, Ras, Raf, and Src. The IGF-IR is a substrate for Src in vitro and is phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed cells. We observed that the IGF-IR and IR associated with the C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) following ligand stimulation. We found that the SH2 domain of CSK binds to the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of IGF-IR and IR. We determined the tyrosine residues in the IGF-IR and in the IR responsible for this interaction. We also observed that fibroblasts stimulated with IGF-I or insulin showed a rapid and transient decrease in c-Src tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that c-Src and CSK are involved in IGF-IR and IR signaling and that the interaction of CSK with the IGF-IR may play a role in the decrease in c-Src activity following IGF-I stimulation. (+info)
(4/3312) Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadate and phlorizin prevents the over-expression of the liver insulin receptor gene.
Administration of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, has been shown to normalize the increased number of insulin receptors in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the effects of vanadate on various steps of expression of the liver insulin receptor gene in diabetic rats have been analyzed and compared with those of phlorizin, a glucopenic drug devoid of insulinomimetic properties. Livers of rats killed 23 days after streptozotocin injection showed a 30-40% increase in the number of cell surface and intracellular insulin receptors, a 50-90% increase in the levels of 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor mRNA species, and a 20% decrease in the relative abundance of the A (exon 11-) insulin receptor mRNA isotype. Daily administration of vanadate or phlorizin from day 5 to day 23 prevented the increase in insulin receptor number and mRNA level, and vanadate treatment also normalized receptor mRNA isotype expression. Unlike observations in vivo, vanadate and phlorizin differentially affected the expression of the insulin receptor gene in Fao hepatoma cells. Vanadate treatment (0.5 mmol/l for 4 h) decreased the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts by at least twofold, without affecting the relative abundance of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. In contrast, phlorizin treatment (5 mmol/l for 4 h) slightly increased or did not affect the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts respectively, and increased by twofold the relative expression of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. It is suggested that, although mediated in part by a reversal of hyperglycemia, normalization of liver insulin receptor gene expression by vanadate treatment in diabetic rats may also involve a direct inhibitory effect of this drug on gene expression. (+info)
(5/3312) Insulin-stimulated insulin secretion in single pancreatic beta cells.
Functional insulin receptors are known to occur in pancreatic beta cells; however, except for a positive feedback on insulin synthesis, their physiological effects are unknown. Amperometric measurements at single, primary pancreatic beta cells reveal that application of exogenous insulin in the presence or absence of nonstimulatory concentrations of glucose evokes exocytosis mediated by the beta cell insulin receptor. Insulin also elicits increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in beta cells but has minimal effects on membrane potential. Conditions where the insulin receptor is blocked or cell surface concentration of free insulin is reduced during exocytosis diminishes secretion induced by other secretagogues, providing evidence for direct autocrine action of insulin upon secretion from the same cell. These results indicate that the beta cell insulin receptor can mediate positive feedback for insulin secretion. The presence of a positive feedback mechanism for insulin secretion mediated by the insulin receptor provides a potential link between impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. (+info)
(6/3312) Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (+info)
(7/3312) Regulation of the insulin-like developmental pathway of Caenorhabditis elegans by a homolog of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene.
The human PTEN tumor suppressor gene is mutated in a wide variety of sporadic tumors. To determine the function of PTEN in vivo we have studied a PTEN homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans. We have generated a strong loss-of-function allele of the PTEN homolog and shown that the deficient strain is unable to enter dauer diapause. An insulin-like phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3'K) signaling pathway regulates dauer-stage entry. Mutations in either the daf-2 insulin receptor-like (IRL) gene or the age-1 encoded PI3'K catalytic subunit homolog cause constitutive dauer formation and also affect the life span, brood size, and metabolism of nondauer animals. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations in the age-1 PI3'K and daf-2 IRL genes are suppressed by loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN homolog. We establish that the PTEN homolog is encoded by daf-18, a previously uncloned gene that has been shown to interact genetically with the DAF-2 IRL AGE-1 PI3'K signaling pathway. This interaction provides clear genetic evidence that PTEN acts to antagonize PI3'K function in vivo. Given the conservation of the PI3'K signaling pathway between C. elegans and mammals, the analysis of daf-18 PTEN mutant nematodes should shed light on the role of human PTEN in the etiology of metabolic disease, aging, and cancer. (+info)
(8/3312) Cross-regulation of C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma controls the transcriptional pathway of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity.
Mice deficient in C/EBP alpha have defective development of adipose tissue, but the precise role of C/EBP alpha has not been defined. Fibroblasts from C/EBP alpha(-/-) mice undergo adipose differentiation through expression and activation of PPAR gamma, though several clear defects are apparent. C/EBP alpha-deficient adipocytes accumulates less lipid, and they do not induce endogenous PPAR gamma, indicating that cross-regulation between C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma is important in maintaining the differentiated state. The cells also show a complete absence of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, secondary to reduced gene expression and tyrosine phosphorylation for the insulin receptor and IRS-1. These results define multiple roles for C/EBP alpha in adipogenesis and show that cross-regulation between PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha is a key component of the transcriptional control of this cell lineage. (+info)