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(1/11134) Immune responses to all ErbB family receptors detectable in serum of cancer patients.

Employing NIH3T3 transfectants with individual human ErbB receptor coding sequences as recombinant antigen sources, we detected by immunoblot analysis specific immunoreactivity against all four ErbB receptors among 13 of 41 sera obtained from patients with different types of epithelial malignancies. Overall, serum positivity was most frequently directed against ErbB2 followed by EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Specificity patterns comprised tumor patients with unique serum reactivity against ErbB2 or ErbB4. Moreover, approximately half of the positive sera exhibited concomitant reactivity with multiple ErbB receptors including EGFR and ErbB2, EGFR and ErbB4, ErbB2 and ErbB3 or EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Serum reactivity was confirmed for the respective ErbB receptors expressed by human tumor cells and corroborated on receptor-specific immunoprecipitates. Positive sera contained ErbB-specific antibodies of the IgG isotype. Representative immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues suggested overexpression of ErbB receptors for which serum antibodies were detectable in five of six patients. These findings implicate multiple ErbB receptors including ErbB3 and ErbB4 in addition to EGFR and ErbB2 in primary human cancer. Heterogeneity of natural ErbB-specific responses in cancer patients warrants their evaluation in light of immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these receptors.  (+info)

(2/11134) Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells.

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

(3/11134) The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase.

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

(4/11134) Differential expression and translocation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-related proteins in ME-180 tumor cells expressing apoptotic sensitivity and resistance to tumor necrosis factor: potential interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by overexpression of specific tyrosine kinases or activation of tyrosine kinase cascades, suggesting potential antagonism between apoptotic and tyrosine kinase signaling processes. In this report, the effects of TNF on EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in ME-180 cell variants selected for apoptotic sensitivity (Sen) or resistance (Res) to TNF, previously shown to differentially express EGFr, were examined. Prior to the onset of apoptosis, TNF caused a significant reduction in the level of EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation in Sen cells but mediated only limited suppression of EGFr tyrosine phosphorylation in apoptotically resistant Res cells. In vitro incubation of cellular membranes with TNF derived from Sen cells stimulated a resident protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity which was able to dephosphorylate EGFr or tyrosine phosphopeptides mimicking an EGFr autophosphorylation site. In membrane preparations, PTPIB complexed with tyrosine phosphorylated EGFr and this association was disrupted by TNF through an apparent stimulation of PTP activity and turnover of phosphotyrosine. Intrinsic enzymatic activity of PTP1B was 2-3-fold higher in Sen versus Res cell lysates and a family of PTP1B-related proteins with altered C-termini was found to be highly expressed in Sen cells but absent or expressed at reduced levels in Res cells. Cytoplasmic extracts of Sen cells contained PTP1B-like proteins and TNF incubation resulted in the time dependent accumulation of PTP1B-like proteins in Sen cells but did not effect these proteins in Res cells. Together, these results suggest that specific changes in expression and subcellular distribution of phosphotyrosine modulatory proteins may play a role in conveying intrinsic apoptotic sensitivity to TNF in some tumor cell types.  (+info)

(5/11134) An intramembrane modulator of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase that potentiates neuregulin signaling.

The ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in a variety of developmental processes, and its aberrant activation may contribute to the progression of some breast and ovarian tumors. ASGP2, a transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of the highly metastatic ascites 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line, is constitutively associated with ErbB2 in these cells and in mammary tissue from pregnant rats. Expression studies indicate that ASGP2 interacts directly and specifically with ErbB2 through one of its epidermal growth factor-like domains and that the co-expression of the two proteins in the same cell dramatically facilitates their direct stable interaction. Ectopic expression of ASGP2 in human melanoma tumor cells potentiates the response of endogenous ErbB2 to the neuregulin-1 growth factor. These observations point to a novel intramembrane mechanism for the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity.  (+info)

(6/11134) Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury.  (+info)

(7/11134) Elevation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and dependent signaling in human papillomavirus-infected laryngeal papillomas.

Laryngeal papillomas are benign tumors caused by human papillomaviruses types 6 and 11. This study addressed alterations in levels of signal transduction from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in papillomas and cultured papilloma cells compared to normal tissue and cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was activated to a greater extent, phosphotyrosine was more abundant, and EGFR was overexpressed in laryngeal papillomas compared to normal laryngeal epithelium by Western blot analysis. The EGFR was 3 times more abundant in cultured papilloma cells than in normal laryngeal cells by Scatchard analysis and Western blot, without gene amplification or an increase in steady-state levels of mRNA. Following stimulation with EGF, a significant portion of the EGFR was recycled to the surface in papilloma cells, whereas in normal cells, it was not. Tyrosine kinase activity and activation of MAPK was more responsive to epidermal growth factor stimulation in papilloma cells than in uninfected primary laryngeal cells. PD153035, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR, and an EGFR-specific antibody that blocks ligand binding completely abrogated basal MAPK activation by endogenous ligands in laryngeal papilloma cells. These results demonstrated that infection of laryngeal epithelium by low-risk human papillomaviruses elevates the EGFR by posttranslational mechanisms, increasing its responsiveness to ligand-mediated activation. They also showed that MAPK activation in laryngeal papillomas depends upon ligand-mediated EGFR stimulation.  (+info)

(8/11134) Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)