(1/1133) Transcriptional down-regulation of the rabbit pulmonary artery endothelin B receptor during phenotypic modulation.

1. We confirmed that endothelium-independent contraction of the rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) is mediated through both an endothelin A (ET(A)R) and endothelin B (ET(B2)R) receptor. 2. The response of endothelium-denuded RPA rings to endothelin-1 (ET-1, pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03) was only partially inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A)R antagonist. 3. Pretreatment with 1 nM sarafotoxin S6c (S6c), an ET(B)R agonist, desensitized the ET(B2)R and significantly attenuated the response to ET-3 (pD2 = 7.40 +/- 0.02 before, <6.50 after S6c). 4. Pretreatment with S6c had little effect on the response to ET-1, but BQ123 (10 microM) caused a parallel shift to the right of the residual ETAR-mediated response to ET-1 (pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03 before S6c, 7.93 +/- 0.03 after S6c, 6.81 +/- 0.05 after BQ123). 5. Binding of radiolabelled ET-1 to early passage cultures of RPA vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) displayed two patterns of competitive displacement characteristic of the ET(A)R (BQ123 pIC50 = 8.73 +/- 0.05) or ET(B2)R (S6c pIC50 = 10.15). 6. Competitive displacement experiments using membranes from late passage VSMC confirmed only the presence of the ET(A)R (ET-1 pIC50 = 9.3, BQ123 pIC50 = 8.0, S6c pIC50 < 6.0). 7. The ET(A)R was functionally active and coupled to rises in intracellular calcium which exhibited prolonged homologous desensitization. 8. Using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rabbit ET(B2)R, we demonstrated the absence of mRNA expression in phenotypically modified VSMC. 9. We conclude that the ET(B2)R expressed by VSMC which mediates contraction of RPA is rapidly down-regulated at the transcriptional level during phenotypic modulation in vitro.  (+info)

(2/1133) Maintenance of blood pressure in normotensive dogs by endothelin.

The role of endothelin (ET)-1 in blood pressure homeostasis and the interaction with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was investigated in normotensive conscious dogs. ETA receptors were blocked by LU-135252 (1-30 mg/kg); trandolapril (2 mg/kg) or losartan (10 mg/kg) was used to inhibit the RAS. LU-135252 in oral doses of 3-30 mg/kg significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) by approximately 10 mmHg maximally, whereas trandolapril or losartan were without any effect. MAP reduction was more pronounced when LU-135252 was combined with either losartan (-15.5 +/- 3.2 mmHg; 2 h postadministration; P < 0.05) or trandolapril (-30.9 +/- 3.6 mmHg; P < 0.05). When endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation was blocked but NO concomitantly infused, this synergistic effect on MAP was prevented. The data show that ET-1 contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure via ETA receptors. Furthermore, ET-1 and ANG II play a prominent role in the control of blood pressure by opposing the effects of NO. The pronounced blood pressure fall after combined blockade of ETA receptors and the RAS may be mediated by an enhanced release of NO.  (+info)

(3/1133) Endothelin antagonists block alpha1-adrenergic constriction of coronary arterioles.

We have previously observed that intracoronary administration of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) over a period of minutes induced both an immediate and long-lasting (2 h) vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles. Because it is unlikely that alpha1-adrenergic constriction would persist for hours after removal of the agonist, this observation supports the view that another constrictor(s) is released during alpha1-adrenergic activation and induces the prolonged vasoconstriction. Therefore, we hypothesized that the prolonged microvascular constriction after PE is due to the production of endothelin (ET). We focused on ET not only because this peptide produces potent vasoconstriction but also because its vasoconstrictor action is characterized by a long duration. To test this hypothesis, the diameters of coronary arterioles (<222 micrometers) in the beating heart of pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs with stroboscopic intravital microscopy were measured during a 15-min intracoronary infusion of PE (1 microgram. kg-1 . min-1) and at 15-min intervals for a total of 120 min. All experiments were performed in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol. At 120 min, arterioles in the PE group were constricted (-23 +/- 9% change in diameter vs. baseline). Pretreatment with the ET-converting enzyme inhibitor phosphoramidon or the ETA-receptor antagonist FR-139317 prevented the PE-induced constriction at 120 min (-1 +/- 3 and -6 +/- 3%, respectively, P < 0.01 vs. PE). Pretreatment with the selective alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (Prz) also prevented the sustained constriction (0 +/- 2%, P < 0.01 vs. PE) but Prz given 60 min after PE infusion did not (-13 +/- 3%). In the aggregate, these results show that vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arterioles via alpha1-adrenergic activation is blocked by an ET antagonist and an inhibitor of its production. From these data, we conclude that alpha1-adrenergic activation promotes the production and/or release of ET, which produces or facilitates microvascular constriction of epicardial canine coronary arterioles.  (+info)

(4/1133) Contribution of endothelin to renal vascular tone and autoregulation in the conscious dog.

Exogenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a strong vasoconstrictor in the canine kidney and causes a decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) by stimulating the ETA receptor subtype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endogenously generated ET-1 in renal hemodynamics under physiological conditions. In six conscious foxhounds, the time course of the effects of the selective ETA receptor antagonist LU-135252 (10 mg/kg iv) on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), RBF, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as well as its effects on renal autoregulation, were examined. LU-135252 increased RBF by 20% (from 270 +/- 21 to 323 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.05) and HR from 76 +/- 5 to 97 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0. 05), but did not alter MAP, GFR, or autoregulation of RBF and GFR. Since a number of interactions between ET-1 and the renin-angiotensin system have been reported previously, experiments were repeated during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by trandolaprilat (2 mg/kg iv). When ETA receptor blockade was combined with ACE inhibition, which by itself had no effects on renal hemodynamics, marked changes were observed: MAP decreased from 91 +/- 4 to 80 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05), HR increased from 85 +/- 5 to 102 +/- 11 beats/min (P < 0.05), and RBF increased from 278 +/- 23 to 412 +/- 45 ml/min (P < 0.05). Despite a pronounced decrease in renal vascular resistance over the entire pressure range investigated (40-100 mmHg), the capacity of the kidneys to autoregulate RBF was not impaired. The GFR remained completely unaffected at all pressure levels. These results demonstrate that endogenously generated ET-1 contributes significantly to renal vascular tone but does not interfere with the mechanisms of renal autoregulation. If ETA receptors are blocked, then the vasoconstrictor effects of ET-1 in the kidney are compensated for to a large extent by an augmented influence of ANG II. Thus ET-1 and ANG II appear to constitute a major interrelated vasoconstrictor system in the control of RBF.  (+info)

(5/1133) Endothelin stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation via activation of endothelin ETA receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21-amino acid peptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptors to evoke biological responses. This report studies the effect of ET-1 on regulating glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ET-1, but not angiotensin II, stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.29 nM and a 2.47-fold stimulation at 100 nM. ET-1 stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells but had no effect in undifferentiated cells, although ET-1 stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis to a similar degree in both. The 3T3-L1 cells expressed approximately 560,000 sites/cell of ETA receptor, which was not altered during differentiation. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining show that ET-1 stimulated the translocation of insulin-responsive aminopeptidase and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The effect of ET-1 on glucose uptake was blocked by A-216546, an antagonist selective for the ETA receptor. ET-1 treatment did not induce phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta-subunit, insulin receptor substrate-1, or Akt but stimulated the tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 75-kDa protein. Genistein (100 microM), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, inhibited ET-1-stimulated glucose uptake. Our results show that ET-1 stimulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of ETA receptor.  (+info)

(6/1133) Endothelin receptor expression and pharmacology in human saphenous vein graft.

1. We have investigated the expression and pharmacology of endothelin (ET) receptors in human aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. 2. Subtype-selective ligands were used to autoradiographically identify ET(A) ([125I]-PD151242) and ET(B)([125I]-BQ3020) receptors. In graft saphenous vein ETA receptors predominated in the media, with few ET(B) receptors identified. Neither subtype was detected in the thickened neointima. 3. The ratio of medial ET(A):ET(B) receptors was 75%: 25% in both graft and control saphenous vein. 4. ET-1 contracted control (EC50 2.9 nM) and graft (EC50 4.5 nM) saphenous vein more potently than diseased coronary artery (EC50 25.5 nM). 5. In all three blood vessels ET-1 was 100 times more potent than ET-3 and three times more potent than sarafotoxin 6b (S6b). Little or no response was obtained in any vessel with the ET(B) agonist sarafotoxin 6c (S6c). 6. The ET(A) antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) blocked ET-1 responses in all three vessels with pKb values of approximately 8.0. 7. For individual graft veins the EC50 value for ET-1 and 'age' of graft in years showed a significant negative correlation. 8. In conclusion there is no alteration in ET receptor expression in the media of saphenous veins grafted into the coronary circulation compared to control veins. ETA receptors predominantly mediate the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 in graft vein, with no apparent up-regulation of ET(B) receptors. The sensitivity of the graft vein to ET-1 increased with graft 'age', suggesting that these vessels may be particularly vulnerable to the increased plasma ET levels that are detected in patients with cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(7/1133) Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation.

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

(8/1133) Modulation of ET-1-induced contraction of human bronchi by airway epithelium-dependent nitric oxide release via ET(A) receptor activation.

1. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) was able to induce the release of an inhibitory factor from the airway epithelium in isolated human bronchi and to identify this mediator as well as the endothelin receptor involved in this phenomenon. 2. In intact bronchi, ET-1 induced a concentration-dependent contraction (-logEC50 = 7.92+/-0.09, n = 18) which was potentiated by epithelium removal (-logEC50 = 8.65+/-0.11, n = 17). BQ-123 , an ET(A) receptor antagonist, induced a significant leftward shift of the ET-1 concentration-response curve (CRC). This leftward shift was abolished after epithelium removal. 3. L-NAME (3 x 10(-3) M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, induced a significant leftward shift of the ET-1 CRC, and abolished the potentiation by BQ-123 (10(-8) M) of ET-1-induced contraction. 4. In intact preparations, the ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ-788 induced only at 10(-5) M a slight rightward shift of the ET-1 CRC. In contrast, in epithelium-denuded bronchi or in intact preparations in the presence of L-NAME, BQ-788 displayed a non-competitive antagonism toward ET-1-induced contraction. 5. IRL 1620, a selective ET(B) receptor agonist, induced a contraction of the isolated bronchus (-logEC50=7.94+/-0.11, n= 19). This effect was not modified by epithelium removal or by BQ-123. BQ-788 exerted a competitive antagonism against IRL 1620 which was similar in the presence or absence of epithelium. 6. These results show that ET-1 exerts two opposite effects on the human airway smooth muscle. One is contractile via ETB-receptor activation, the other is inhibitory and responsible of NO release which counteracts via ETA-receptor activation the contraction.  (+info)