(1/2374) Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells.
In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs. (+info)
(2/2374) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor (AT1) antagonists: either or both for primary renal disease?
At the present time we cannot assume that the proven benefits of ACEI on renal disease will be reproduced by using AT1-ra. With potentially differing modes of activity of these drugs, they cannot be seen as interchangeable and ACEI should remain the drug of choice in patients with progressive renal disease unless they are not tolerated. It is possible that AT1-ra may offer additional advantages in some patients or that synergy exists between the two agents, but this view will remain entirely speculative unless proper trials are conducted. Despite the results of the ELITE study , the uncertainty regarding the use AT1-ra in cardiovascular disease mirrors that of renal disease. This issue is obviously of relevance to the nephrologist in view of the spectrum of cardiac disease that accompanies chronic renal failure, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac failure, which provide multiple indications for manipulation of RAS. Despite their renoprotective effect, previous studies on ACEI [3,4] have not shown an overall reduction in mortality and this issue needs to be addressed in addition to renoprotection in studies comparing AT1-ra and ACEI. (+info)
(3/2374) Proapoptotic effects of ANG II in human coronary artery endothelial cells: role of AT1 receptor and PKC activation.
Anoxia-reoxygenation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and angiotensin II (ANG II) have been shown to induce apoptosis in myocytes. However, the role of these mediators in causing apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) is not known. This study was designed to examine the interaction of these mediators in induction of apoptosis in HCAEC. Cultured HCAEC were exposed to anoxia-reoxygenation, TNF-alpha, and ANG II. TNF-alpha enhanced apoptosis of HCAEC (determined by DNA nick-end labeling in situ and DNA laddering) caused by anoxia-reoxygenation. ANG II increased apoptosis beyond that caused by anoxia-reoxygenation and TNF-alpha. Apoptosis caused by ANG II was reduced by losartan, a specific ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, whereas PD-123,177, a specific ANG II type 2 receptor blocker, under identical conditions had minimal effect. The proapoptotic effects of ANG II were associated with the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). The importance of PKC activation as a signal transduction mechanism became evident in experiments wherein treatment of HCAEC with a specific inhibitor of PKC activation decreased ANG II-mediated apoptosis. Thus AT1R activation appears to be responsible for apoptosis caused by ANG II in HCAEC, and AT1R activation-mediated apoptosis involves activation of PKC. (+info)
(4/2374) Effects of AT1 receptor blockade after myocardial infarct on myocardial fibrosis, stiffness, and contractility.
Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade attenuates myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of fibrosis by AT1 receptor blockade influences myocardial stiffness and contractility is unknown. We measured left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics, papillary muscle function, and myocardial stiffness and fibrosis in rats randomized to losartan or placebo 1 day after MI and treated subsequently for 8 wk. Losartan decreased LV and right ventricular weights as well as mean aortic and LV systolic pressures in sham and MI rats. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI and was decreased with losartan. Maximal developed tension and peak rate of tension rise and decline were decreased in MI vs. sham rats. Interstitial fibrosis developed after MI and was prevented in losartan-treated MI rats. The development of abnormal myocardial stiffness after MI was prevented by losartan. After MI, AT1 receptor blockade prevents an abnormal increase in myocardial collagen content. This effect was associated with a normalization of passive myocardial stiffness. (+info)
(5/2374) Resetting of exaggerated tubuloglomerular feedback activity in acutely volume-expanded young SHR.
One purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of 7-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to reset tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) activity in response to acute volume expansion (VE). Second, we evaluated the contribution of ANG II, via its action on AT1 receptors, to TGF control of glomerular function during VE. TGF was assessed by micropuncture methods and proximal tubular stop-flow pressure (SFP) determinations in SHR, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). During euvolemia SHR exhibited enhanced TGF activity. In the same animals acute VE was achieved by infusion of saline (5 ml. h-1. 100 g body wt-1). VE led to resetting of TGF in all three strains. Maximal SFP responses, elicited by a 30-40 nl/min loop of Henle perfusion rate, decreased from 19 to 12 mmHg in SHR and, on average, from 11 to 5 mmHg in WKY and SD (P < 0.001). Tubular flow rate producing a half-maximal response (turning point) shifted to higher flow rates during VE, from 12 to 14 nl/min in SHR and from 15 to 19 nl/min in WKY. Administration of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan (0.05 mg/kg iv) during sustained VE decreased TGF-mediated reductions in SFP in SHR and slightly increased the turning point in WKY. Nevertheless, other parameters of TGF activity were unaffected by AT1 receptor blockade. In conclusion, young SHR possess the ability to reset TGF activity in response to VE to a degree similar to compensatory adjustments in WKY. However, TGF remains enhanced in SHR during VE. ANG II and its action on AT1 receptors are in part responsible for the exaggerated SFP responses in young SHR during VE. (+info)
(6/2374) Chimeric dopamine D2/angiotensin AT1 receptors: role of the length of third intracellular loop of D2 receptors in conferring specificity of receptor binding and G-protein coupling.
AIM: To define roles of the third intracellular loop (IL3) length of G-protein coupled receptors in conferring the specificity for receptor binding and G-protein coupling. METHODS: By polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the IL3 of D2 receptor was replaced with the counter part of AT1 receptor which has the shortest loop among all G-protein coupled receptors. D2/AT1 receptor cDNA was then stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells and a clone with high level expression was obtained for receptor binding and agonist-induced phosphatidylinositols (PI) turnover experiments. RESULTS: Comparing to the D2 receptor, D2/AT1 chimeric receptor had lower affinities for all D2 receptor antagonists tested (spiperone, haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, chlopromazine, clozapine, trifluoperdazine) and different affinity profiles to agonists (apomorphine, dopamine, quinpirole, bromocriptine). But the chimeric receptor failed to couple to G-protein and subsequent stimulation of PI turnover. CONCLUSION: The length of IL3 of D2 receptor participates defining recpetor binding sites conformation, and structure beyond IL3 may affect receptor G-protein coupling. (+info)
(7/2374) Angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene expression in human glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus.
The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of chronic renal disease. Although the expression of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme in experimental and human renal disease has been well characterized, no information is available regarding human angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. The net effect of renin depends on AT1 receptor expression, among other factors. Receptor expression was determined in renal biopsy samples (including all tissue components) and isolated glomeruli from patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) or diabetic nephropathy (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Biopsy samples and isolated glomeruli from tumor-free tissue from tumor nephrectomies served as controls. Human AT1 receptor gene expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, using an AT1 receptor deletion mutant as the internal standard. In whole biopsy samples from 37 patients with various types of GN, AT1 receptor mRNA levels were lower, compared with nine control biopsy samples (P < 0.001). AT1 receptor mRNA levels were also significantly lower (P < 0.001) in eight samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy. In microdissected glomeruli, AT1 receptor gene expression was significantly lower in samples from patients (n = 22) with various types of GN, compared with 12 microdissected tumor nephrectomy control samples (P < 0.0023). It is concluded that AT1 receptor mRNA expression is low in glomeruli of patients with chronic renal disease. This may reflect a regulatory response to (inappropriately) high intrarenal angiotensin II concentrations. (+info)
(8/2374) Evidence for involvement of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor locus in essential hypertension.
Components of the renin-angiotensin system play an important role in the normal regulation of blood pressure. We carried out a comprehensive genetic linkage study of the genes involved in the renin-angiotensin cascade in Finnish hypertensive twins and their affected siblings. We found no evidence for linkage between essential hypertension and the genes coding for renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, or kallikrein 1 in the 329 hypertensive individuals of 142 families studied. In contrast, two intragenic markers for the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) showed some evidence for linkage in the total sample. A closer examination of this gene locus was carried out using subgroups of nonobese sibpairs with early onset of hypertension and uniform geographical origin. These stratifications yielded suggestive evidence for linkage of hypertension to the genetic area containing the AT1 gene, with a maximal multipoint logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 2.9. A genetic association study carried out in an independent series of 50 hypertensive cases and 122 normotensive controls showed an increase in the frequency of the A1166-->C allele of the AT1 gene in the hypertensive individuals. In a novel variant of model-free multipoint linkage analysis allowing linkage disequilibrium in the calculations, an LOD score of 5.13 was obtained. Sequence analyses of the entire coding region and 848 bp of promoter region in the DNA sample on 8 index samples did not reveal previously unpublished sequence variations. The data provide evidence that a common genetic variant of the AT1 gene locus influences the risk of essential hypertension in the Finnish population. (+info)