(1/317) Immunogenicity of apoptotic cells in vivo: role of antigen load, antigen-presenting cells, and cytokines.
Apoptosis allows the clearance of unwanted cells from living tissues without causing inflammation. Processing of phagocytosed apoptotic cells yields Ags that access the cytosol and the MHC class I pathway of engulfing cells and are recognized by Ag-specific CTL. We show here that injection of apoptotic RMA cells, a syngeneic T cell lymphoma, into C57BL/6 mice results in priming of a functional and long-lasting tumor-specific immune response. Cross-priming of CTLs by apoptotic cells requires CD4+ T cell help. Apoptotic cells, however, are at least 20-fold less immunogenic than nonreplicating live cells. Immunogenicity of apoptotic cells is proportional to the number of cells injected, correlates with the serum concentration of IL-10 and IL-1beta cytokines, and is enhanced in IL-10 knockout mice. Moreover, immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), but not macrophages (Mphi), pulsed with apoptotic cells primes tumor-specific CTLs and confers protection against a tumor challenge. Our findings demonstrate that tumor cells undergoing apoptosis are, though scarcely, immunogenic in vivo, outline the different roles of Mphi and DCs in the physiologic clearance of unwanted cells, and have implications in designing immunomodulating vaccines. (+info)
(2/317) Cell density-dependent growth in agar of bone marrow cells from tumor-bearing BALB/c mice in the absence of a colony-stimulating factor.
Bone marrow cells from BALB/c mice with myeloid leukemia, lymphosarcoma, erythroblastosis, or mammary tumor produce small clusters in semisolid agar cultures in the absence of specific colony-stimulating factor. This spontaneous growth is observed only when high cell numbers (5 x 10 5 cells/ml) are plated. The phenomenon was encountered only when mice had an elevated number of mature or immature granulocytes in the peripheral blood. Removal of the adherent cells from the bone marrow did not abolish spontaneous growth, indicating that this colony-stimulating factor independency is not due to a high number of colony-stimulating cells in the bone marrow cells. This excluded the possibility that the spontaneous growth was due to a high endogenous stimulating activity of the bone marrow from tumor-bearing mice. (+info)
(3/317) Subversion of immune system by tumor cells and role of prostaglandins.
Mice bearing syngeneic tumors, chemical and virus-induced, became immunologically unresponsive to sheep erythrocytes. The increase in the degree of unresponsiveness with tumor growth suggested a causal relationship. Immunosuppression was in fact caused by the tumor cells because the addition of tumor cells to in vitro cultures of spleen cells and sheep erythrocytes resulted in suppression of antibody response. Suppression was dose dependent with a ratio of 1 to 1000 of tumor cells to spleen cells sufficient to produce significant suppression. Prostaglandins were found to have a role in immunosuppression by tumor cells in that PGE2 was itself immunosuppressive and in that indomethacin and aspirin, inhibitors of prostaglandin synthetases, blocked immunosuppression in vitro and retarded tumor growth in vivo. These findings suggest that tumors, although antigenic, may be able to escape immuno-sureillance by their host by means of subverting the immune system. Thus, success of immunotherapy may well depend on our ability to prevent or block the immunosuppressive activity of tumors. (+info)
(4/317) Prevention of viral-chemical co-carcinogenesis in vitro by type-specific anti-viral antibody.
Low passage Fischer rat embryo cultures, which are normally very resistant to transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene but are highly susceptible when chronically infected with the Rauscher murine leukemia virus, were completely protected from transformation by methylcholanthrene when treated with neutralizing antibody specific for the leukemia virus prior to and during treatment with methylcholanthrene. Sister cultures were not protected by neutralizing antibody specific for the B-tropic radiation leukemia virus. This demonstrates clearly a definite type specific role for Rauscher murine leukemia virus in the 2-methylcholanthrene transformation system in rat cells. (+info)
(5/317) Synthesis of Rauscher murine leukemia virus-specific polypeptides in vitro.
The biosynthesis of specific polypeptides directed by purified viral messenger RNA from JLS-V9 cells infected with Rauscher leukemia virus has been studied in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The 35S viral mRNA gives rise to two major products of 65,000 and 72,000 molecular weight. The synthesis of specific polypeptides was also investigated in lysates derived from infected cells. The main products were polypeptides with molecular weights of 65,000, 76,000, and 82,000, and were preferentially made in association with membranes. The relative content of the virus-specific polypeptide of 65,000 molecular weight, synthesized in a cell-free system supplemented with purified polyribosomes, is considerably higher for membrane-bound polyribosomes. (+info)
(6/317) Abrogation of CTL epitope processing by single amino acid substitution flanking the C-terminal proteasome cleavage site.
CTL directed against the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) epitope SSWDFITV recognize Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cells, but do not recognize cells transformed by the closely related Friend MuLV. The potential Friend MuLV epitope has strong sequence homology with Moloney MuLV and only differs in one amino acid within the CTL epitope and one amino acid just outside the epitope. We now show that failure to recognize Friend MuLV-transformed tumor cells is based on a defect in proteasome-mediated processing of the Friend epitope which is due to a single amino acid substitution (N-->D) immediately flanking the C-terminal anchor residue of the epitope. Proteasome-mediated digestion analysis of a synthetic 26-mer peptide derived from the Friend sequence shows that cleavage takes place predominantly C-terminal of D, instead of V as is the case for the Moloney MuLV sequence. Therefore, the C terminus of the epitope is not properly generated. Epitope-containing peptide fragments extended with an additional C-terminal D are not efficiently translocated by TAP and do not show significant binding affinity to MHC class I-Kb molecules. Thus, a potential CTL epitope present in the Friend virus sequence is not properly processed and presented because of a natural flanking aspartic acid that obliterates the correct C-terminal cleavage site. This constitutes a novel way to subvert proteasome-mediated generation of proper antigenic peptide fragments. (+info)
(7/317) A fucose-deficient glycoprotein precursor to Rauscher leukemia virus gp69/71.
Rauscher leukemia virus glycoprotein gp69/71 is synthesized in virus-infected cells by way of a 90,000 dalton glycoprotein precursor, termed Pr2a+b. This precursor could be labeled with radioactive glucosamine and methionine but not with fucose; whereas gp69/71 could be detected by labeling with radioactive glucosamine, fucose, or a mixture of amino acids but seemed to be deficient in methionine relative to Pr2a+b. Pr2a+b and gp69/71, were specifically precipitated by an antiserum prepared against phosphocellulose purified Rauscher gp69/71. Other virus-specific precursors, in addition to Pr2a+b, could be precipitated by antiserum prepared against detergent disrupted virus. Neither Pr2a+b nor gp69/71 was precipitated from cell extracts by antisera to Rauscher p30. Tryptic maps of Pr2a+b and gp69/71 showed that these glycoproteins share many tryptic peptides. Pulse-chase experiments with 14C-labeled amino acids indicated that gp69/71 was not radio-labeled during the pulse-labeling period but slowly appeared during the chase incubations. Pr2a+b, however, was rapidly labeled and tended to disappear during long chases. Furthermore, two nonglycosylated viral proteins, termed p15E and p12E, are structurally related to Pr2a+b. Viral p15E and p12E contained the same methionine-containing tryptic peptide fraction as Pr2a+b as determined by ion-exchange chromatography. These results provide evidence that Pr2a+b is a precursor to gp69/71 and establish a structural and possible precursor-product relationship between Pr2a+b, p15E, and p12E. (+info)
(8/317) Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus.
A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology. (+info)