(1/1240) Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.
Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons. (+info)
(2/1240) Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin.
It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes. (+info)
(3/1240) Reversing adipocyte differentiation: implications for treatment of obesity.
Conventional treatment of obesity reduces fat in mature adipocytes but leaves them with lipogenic enzymes capable of rapid resynthesis of fat, a likely factor in treatment failure. Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia in normal rats results in rapid nonketotic fat loss that persists after hyperleptinemia disappears, whereas pair-fed controls regain their weight in 2 weeks. We report here that the hyperleptinemia depletes adipocyte fat while profoundly down-regulating lipogenic enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in epididymal fat; enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and their transcription factor, PPARalpha, normally low in adipocytes, are up-regulated, as are uncoupling proteins 1 and 2. This transformation of adipocytes from cells that store triglycerides to fatty acid-oxidizing cells is accompanied by loss of the adipocyte markers, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leptin, and by the appearance of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1. These findings suggest a strategy for the treatment of obesity by alteration of the adipocyte phenotype. (+info)
(4/1240) Report of a National Institutes of Health--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop on the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons.
A workshop was convened in 1997 by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider the need for and feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. Although the benefits of weight loss in obese individuals may seem obvious, little information is available showing that intentional weight loss improves long-term health outcomes. Observational studies may be unable to provide convincing answers about the magnitude and direction of the health effects of intentional weight loss. Workshop participants agreed that a well-designed randomized clinical trial could answer several questions necessary for developing a rational clinical and public health policy for treating obesity. Such information will ultimately provide needed guidance on the risks and benefits of weight loss to health care providers and payers, as well as to millions of obese Americans. (+info)
(5/1240) Response of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion.
Modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) allows a tissue-specific partitioning of triglyceride-derived fatty acids, and insulin is a major modulator of its activity. The present studies were aimed to assess in rats the contribution of insulin to the response of adipose tissue and muscle LPL to food intake. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose LPL rose 65% above fasting values as early as 1 h after the onset of a 30-min high-carbohydrate meal, with a second activity peak 1 h later that was maintained for an additional 2 h. Soleus muscle LPL was decreased by 25% between 0.5 and 4 h after meal intake. The essential contribution of insulin to the LPL response to food intake was determined by preventing the full insulin response to meal intake by administration of diazoxide (150 mg/kg body wt, in the meal). The usual postprandial changes in adipose and muscle LPL did not occur in the absence of an increase in insulinemia. However, the early (60 min) increase in adipose tissue LPL was not prevented by the drug, likely because of the maintenance of the early centrally mediated phase of insulin secretion. In a subsequent study, rats chronically implanted with a gastric cannula were used to demonstrate that the postprandial rise in adipose LPL is independent of nutrient absorption and can be elicited by the cephalic (preabsorptive) phase of insulin secretion. Obese Zucker rats were used because of their strong cephalic insulin response. After an 8-h fast, rats were fed a liquid diet ad libitum (orally, cannula closed), sham fed (orally, cannula opened), or fed directly into the stomach via the cannula during 4 h. Insulinemia increased 10-fold over fasting levels in ad libitum- and intragastric-fed rats and threefold in sham-fed rats. Changes in adipose tissue LPL were proportional to the elevation in plasma insulin levels, demonstrating that the cephalic-mediated rise in insulinemia, in the absence of nutrient absorption, stimulates adipose LPL. These results demonstrate the central role of insulin in the postprandial response of tissue LPL, and they show that cephalically mediated insulin secretion is able to stimulate adipose LPL. (+info)
(6/1240) Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats.
Prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFAs) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vitro. However, FFA inhibition of GSIS has not been clearly demonstrated in vivo. We examined the in vivo effect of prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs on GSIS using a two-step hyperglycemic clamp in rats treated with a 48-h intravenous infusion of either 20% Intralipid plus heparin (INT) (5 microl/min plus heparin, 0.1 U/min; n = 8), oleate (OLE) (1.3 microEq/min; n = 6), saline (SAL) (n = 6), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (vehicle for OLE; n = 5). Because there was no difference in any of the parameters between BSA and SAL rats, these groups were combined as control rats (CONT) (n = 11). At the end of the 48-h OLE/INT/CONT infusions, after an overnight fast, plasma glucose was clamped for 2 h at 13 mmol/l and for another 2 h at 22 mmol/l. Preclamp plasma FFAs were elevated twofold (P < 0.01) versus CONT with both INT and OLE (NS, INT vs. OLE). Preclamp glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were higher in INT than in CONT rats (P < 0.05), suggesting insulin resistance, but they were not different in OLE and CONT rats. The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from basal to 13 mmol/l were lower in OLE (336 +/- 72 pmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in CONT (552 +/- 54 and 1.9 +/- 0.1) rats, but they were not different between CONT and INT rats (648 +/- 150 and 2.0 +/- 0.4). The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from 13 to 22 mmol/l were lower in both INT (1,188 +/- 204 pmol/l and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and OLE (432 +/- 60 and 1.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001 vs. CONT or INT) rats than in CONT rats (1,662 +/- 174 and 5.0 +/- 0.6). In summary, 1) both INT and OLE decreased GSIS in vivo in rats, and 2) the impairing effect of INT on GSIS was less than that of OLE, which might be due to the different type of fatty acid (mostly polyunsaturated in INT versus monounsaturated as OLE) and/or to differential effects of INT and OLE on insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs can desensitize the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo, thus inducing a beta-cell defect that is similar to that found in type 2 diabetes. (+info)
(7/1240) Antihypertensive effect of insulin via nitric oxide production in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, an animal model for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
It has been reported that insulin treatment improves hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the antihypertensive effect of insulin, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated a possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in insulin-induced reduction of blood pressure using the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The animals were divided into three groups and treated for 4 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of insulin (25U/kg body weight) with or without oral administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50mg/kg/day body weight as drinking water), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Saline solution was injected subcutaneously in the control groups. During the experimental period, body weight gain was greater in the insulin-treated groups than in the control groups whereas water intake was considerably decreased in the insulin-treated groups. Insulin treatment resulted in a decrease in plasma glucose and blood pressure, and an increase in both NO metabolites (NOx) in the plasma and NOS activity in the aorta tissue. L-NAME treatment blunted not only the antihypertensive effect of insulin but also the changes in NOx and NOS activity. These findings suggest that insulin reduces blood pressure in the ZDF rat by stimulating NOS activation and NO production. (+info)
(8/1240) Induction of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) gene expression on the differentiation of rat preadipocytes to adipocytes in primary culture.
We have examined uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) gene expression in the adipose tissue of obese and normal rats and mice, and also in differentiated rat adipocytes in primary culture. Expression of the UCP2 gene was examined in rat and mouse adipose tissues using both RT-PCR and Northern blotting. Although the RT-PCR was not quantitative, the band corresponding to the UCP2 mRNA was stronger in white adipose tissue than in brown fat, regardless of the body weight of the rats. In agreement with the RT-PCR data, there was a higher level of UCP2 mRNA in the white adipocytes than in brown adipocytes, the level being greater in obese mice. Fibroblastic preadipocytes were obtained from the inguinal fat pad of suckling rats. Lipid droplets developed inside the cells upon differentiation and adipsin and UCP2 mRNAs were detected by Northern blotting. Both mRNAs were evident in the adipocytes at 4, 6, and 10 d after the induction of differentiation. There was no indication that the expression of UCP2 was markedly affected by the addition of leptin, dexamethasone or isoprenaline. (+info)