PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension.
A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration. (+info)
Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons.
Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites. (+info)
Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine.
Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations. (+info)
The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats.
A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training. (+info)
A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase.
A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes. (+info)
Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat.
The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain. (+info)
Evidence for involvement of B lymphocytes in the surveillance of lung metastasis in the rat.
These studies examined the composition of lymphocytes within the lung after the introduction of tumor cells that metastasize to the lung in rats. i.v. delivery of MADB106 tumor cells into syngeneic Fischer 344 rats caused dose- and time-dependent development of lung tumors, with surface metastases evident 7 days after injection and markedly increased 11 days after injection. The total number of lymphocytes recovered from the lung was increased 11 days after injection but not 7 days after injection. When lymphocytes from the lung, spleen, and blood were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, the most conspicuous change was an increase in the percentage of CD45RA+ cells (i.e., B lymphocytes in the rat) in the lung, with no changes seen in the percentage of natural killer (NKR-P1+), CD4+, or CD8+ cells in the lung. Analysis of the time course showed that B lymphocytes increased in the lung soon after i.v. tumor injection, with an initial peak seen 6 h after injection. Rapid influx of B lymphocytes into lung after i.v. tumor cell injection was also observed in another syngeneic tumor model, i.e., after injection of CC531 cells into WAG rats. To determine whether the influx of B lymphocytes into the lung might participate in tumor surveillance, a high dose of antibody (100 microg) to rat B lymphocytes was given to immunoneutralize these cells; this produced an increase in lung tumors in both models. Finally, Fischer 344 rats were given a s.c. injection of MADB106 tumor cells that made them resistant to lung tumors when given a later i.v. injection of these tumor cells. These animals were found to have an elevated level of B lymphocytes residing in the lung associated with the resistance to lung tumor. These findings suggest that early responses of B lymphocytes are important in protection against tumor development in two rat models of cancer. (+info)
Ethylnitrosourea-induced development of malignant schwannomas in the rat: two distinct loci on chromosome of 10 involved in tumor susceptibility and oncogenesis.
Inbred rodent strains with differing sensitivity to experimental tumor induction provide model systems for the detection of genes that either are responsible for cancer predisposition or modify the process of carcinogenesis. Rats of the inbred BD strains differ in their susceptibility to the induction of neural tumors by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). Newborn BDIX rats that are exposed to EtNU (80 microg/g body weight; injected s.c.) develop malignant schwannomas predominantly of the trigeminal nerves with an incidence >85%, whereas BDIV rats are entirely resistant. A T:A-->A:T transversion mutation at nucleotide 2012 of the neu (erbB-2) gene on chromosome 10, presumably the initial event in EtNU-induced schwannoma development, is later followed by loss of the wild-type neu allele. Genetic crosses between BDIX and BDIV rats served: (a) to investigate the inheritance of susceptibility; (b) to obtain animals informative for the mapping of losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors with polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs); and (c) to localize genes associated with schwannoma susceptibility by linkage analysis with SSLPs. Schwannoma development was strongly suppressed in F1 animals (20% incidence). All of the F1 schwannomas displayed LOH on chromosome 10, with a consensus region on the telomeric tip encompassing D10Rat3, D10Mgh16 and D10Rat2 but excluding neu. A strong bias toward losing the BDIV alleles suggests the involvement of a BDIV-specific tumor suppressor gene(s). Targeted linkage analysis with chromosome 10 SSLPs in F2 intercross and backcross animals localized schwannoma susceptibility to a region around D10Wox23, 30 cM centromeric to the tip. Ninety-four % of F1 tumors exhibited additional LOH at this region. Two distinct loci on chromosome 10 may thus be connected with susceptibility to the induction and development of schwannomas in rats exposed to EtNU. (+info)