2-[3-(2-Thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyll-tryptophan, a novel yellow pigment in salted radish roots.
The structure of the yellow pigment found in salted radish roots was studied. It was found that 1-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TPCC) was unstable under neutral pH, and was easily converted into the yellow pigment. The yellow pigment was isolated and identified as 2-[3-(2-thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan (TPMT) by IR, MS, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, we proved that this compound was the main yellow pigment in salted radish roots. This compound induced no mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100, either with or without prior activation. (+info)
Molecular characterization of plant ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes belonging to the UbcP4/E2-C/UBCx/UbcH10 gene family.
The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome is the ubiquitin-ligase that targets destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle. Anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome and its activator (the fizzy and fizzy-related) proteins work together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs) (E2s). One class of E2s (called E2-C) seems specifically involved in cyclin B1 degradation. Although it has recently been shown that mammalian E2-C is regulated at the protein level during the cell cycle, not much is known concerning the expression of these genes. Arabidopsis encodes two genes belonging to the E2-C gene family (called UBC19 and UBC20). We found that UBC19 is able to complement fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) UbcP4-140 mutant, indicating that the plant protein can functionally replace its yeast ortholog for protein degradation during mitosis. In situ hybridization experiments were performed to study the expression of the E2-C genes in various tissues of plants. Their transcripts were always, but not exclusively, found in tissues active for cell division. Thus, the UBC19/20 E2s may have a key function during cell cycle, but may also be involved in ubiquitylation reactions occurring during differentiation and/or in differentiated cells. Finally, we showed that a translational fusion protein between UBC19 and green fluorescent protein localized both in the cytosol and the nucleus in stable transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright Yellow 2) cells. (+info)
Equilibrium dialysis measurements of the Ca2+-binding properties of recombinant radish vacuolar Ca2+-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli.
Vacuoles of radish (Raphanus sativus) contained a Ca2+-binding protein (RVCaB) of 43 kDa. We investigated the Ca2+-binding properties of the protein. RVCaB was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified from an extract by ion-exchange chromatography, nitrocellulose membrane filtration, and gel-filtration column chromatography. Ca2+-binding properties of the recombinant protein were examined by equilibrium dialysis with 45Ca2+ and small dialysis buttons. The protein was estimated to bind 19Ca2+ ions per molecule with a Kd for Ca2+ of 3.4 mM. Ca2+ was bound to the protein even in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+ or K+. The results suggested that the protein bound Ca2+ with high ion selectivity, high capacity, and low affinity. (+info)
Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes to radish tissue is dependent upon temperature and flagellar motility.
Outbreaks of listeriosis and febrile gastroenteritis have been linked to produce contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. In order to begin to understand the physiology of the organism in a produce habitat, the ability of L. monocytogenes to attach to freshly cut radish tissue was examined. All strains tested had the capacity to attach sufficiently well such that they could not be removed during washing of the radish slices. A screen was developed to identify Tn917-LTV3 mutants that were defective in attachment to radish tissue, and three were characterized. Two of the three mutations were in genes with unknown functions. Both of the unknown genes mapped to a region predicted to contain genes necessary for flagellar export; however, only one of the two insertions caused a motility defect. The third insertion was found to be in an operon encoding a phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system. All three mutants were defective in attachment when tested at 30 degrees C; the motility mutant had the most severe phenotype. However, not all of the mutants were defective when tested at other temperatures. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes may use different attachment factors at different temperatures and that temperature should be considered an important variable in studies of the molecular mechanisms of Listeria fitness in complex environments. (+info)
Identification of the fertility restoration locus, Rfo, in radish, as a member of the pentatricopeptide-repeat protein family.
Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish (Raphanus sativus) is caused by an aberrant mitochondrial gene, Orf138, that prevents the production of functional pollen without affecting female fertility. Rfo, a nuclear gene that restores male fertility, alters the expression of Orf138 at the post-transcriptional level. The Ogura CMS/Rfo two-component system is a useful model for investigating nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, as well as the physiological basis of fertility restoration. Using a combination of positional cloning and microsynteny analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and radish, we genetically and physically delimited the Rfo locus to a 15-kb DNA segment. Analysis of this segment shows that Rfo is a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family. In Arabidopsis, this family contains more than 450 members of unknown function, although most of them are predicted to be targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts and are thought to have roles in organellar gene expression. (+info)
Hydrotropism interacts with gravitropism by degrading amyloplasts in seedling roots of Arabidopsis and radish.
In response to a moisture gradient, roots exhibit hydrotropism to control the orientation of their growth. To exhibit hydrotropism, however, they must overcome the gravitropism that is dominant on Earth. We found that moisture gradient or water stress caused immediate degradation of the starch anchors, amyloplasts, in root columella cells of Arabidopsis and radish (Raphanus sativus). Namely, development of hydrotropic response was accompanied by a simultaneous reduction in starch content in columella cells. Rapid degradation of amyloplasts in columella cells also occurred in the water-stressed roots with sorbitol or mannitol. Both hydrotropically stimulated and water-stressed roots showed a reduced responsiveness to gravity. Roots of a starchless mutant, pgm1-1, showed an enhanced hydrotropism compared with that of the wild type. These results suggest that the reduced responsiveness to gravity is, at least in part, attributable to the degradation of amyloplasts in columella cells. Thus, the reduction in gravitropism allows the roots to exhibit hydrotropism. (+info)
Structural and biochemical dissection of photorespiration in hybrids differing in genome constitution between Diplotaxis tenuifolia (C3-C4) and radish (C3).
We compared the structural, biochemical, and physiological characteristics involved in photorespiration of intergeneric hybrids differing in genome constitution (DtDtR, DtDtRR, and DtRR) between the C(3)-C(4) intermediate species Diplotaxis tenuifolia (DtDt) and the C(3) species radish (Raphanus sativus; RR). The bundle sheath (BS) cells in D. tenuifolia included many centripetally located chloroplasts and mitochondria, but those of radish had only a few chloroplasts and mitochondria. In the hybrids, the numbers of chloroplasts and mitochondria, the ratio of centripetally located organelles to total organelles, and the mitochondrial size in the BS cells increased with an increase in the constitution ratio of the Dt:R genome. The P-protein of glycine decarboxylase (GDC) was confined to the BS mitochondria in D. tenuifolia, whereas in radish, it accumulated more densely in the mesophyll than in the BS mitochondria. In the hybrids, more intense accumulation of GDC in the BS relative to the mesophyll mitochondria occurred with an increase in the Dt:R ratio. These structural and biochemical features in the hybrids were reflected in the gas exchange characteristics of leaves, such as the CO(2) compensation point. Our data indicate that the leaf structure, the intercellular pattern of GDC expression, and the gas exchange characteristics of C(3)-C(4) intermediate photosynthesis are inherited in the hybrids depending on the constitution ratio of the parent genomes. Our findings also demonstrate that the apparent reduced photorespiration in C(3)-C(4) intermediate plants is mainly due to the structural differentiation of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the BS cells combined with the BS-dominant expression of GDC. (+info)
Cloning and expression of mitochondrial MnSOD from the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
A cDNA clone for a mitochondrial MnSOD was isolated from a cDNA library derived from seedlings of the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The cDNA clone, RsMnSOD, encoded a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 25.4 kDa and calculated pI of 8.77. Its deduced amino acid sequence was 93% homologous with MnSOD of Arabidopsis. RNA gel blot analysis showed that RsMnSOD transcripts were most abundant in leaves, followed by roots and hypocotyls, whereas transcripts of RsFeSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD were not detected in roots. The hypocotyls of germinated seedlings turned green and finally red in response to white light. These color changes were accompanied by increases in RsMnSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD mRNA. In addition, RsMnSOD expression was strongly induced by osmotic stress, moderately induced by phytohormones such as ABA and IAA, and not induced by xenobiotics other than cercosporin. (+info)