(1/292) Sexually transmitted diseases in abused children and adolescent and adult victims of rape: review of selected literature.
Sexual assault (defined as sexual relations with another person obtained through physical force, threat, or intimidation) of children includes genital fondling, photographing, or viewing for sexual gratification; exposure of the child to pornographic material or to adult sexual activity; and attempted or successful penetration of any of the child's orifices. The purpose of this investigation was to review the medical literature published since 1988 that reported on the prevalence of particular sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in populations of sexually assaulted adults and adolescents and sexually abused children, as well as the prevalence of sexual abuse among children who present with an STD. These data will be helpful for managing cases of sexual assault involving children, adolescents, or adults; estimating the risk of abuse among children with specific STDs; and identifying research priorities in this area. (+info)
(2/292) Diethylstilbestrol in the treatment of rape victims.
Despite growing controversy surrounding its use as a "morning after pill," diethylstilbestrol (DES) is prescribed liberally for rape victims. Guidelines for its use in these patients is lacking. Of 150 consecutive rape victims treated at a university medical center, 63 (42 percent) received prescriptions for DES. Of the 55 (87 percent) on whom follow-up was obtained, in 40 (73 percent) there were substantial side effects-nausea or vomiting, or both. At least six (11 percent) did not complete therapy because of these side effects. The authors offer guidelines for use of DES for rape victims and a plan for patient education and follow-up. (+info)
(3/292) Doctors demand AIDS drugs for women who have been raped.
(4/292) Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB. Although only a couple of substances have been implicated with sexual assault, this study has shown that almost 20 different substances have been associated with this crime. This study also raises the concern of illicit and licit drug use in sexual assault cases and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases. It also highlights the need to test for GHB, which is not generally tested for in a normal toxicology screen. (+info)
(5/292) Examination for sexual assault: is the documentation of physical injury associated with the laying of charges? A retrospective cohort study.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether there is an association between individual medical findings and legal outcome in cases of sexual assault. This study was undertaken to determine the relation between the extent of documented physical injury and a positive legal outcome in cases of sexual assault and to determine other factors associated with the laying of charges in such cases. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed the charts and medicolegal reports for all cases of sexual assault that were handled by the BC Women's Sexual Assault Service in 1992 for which a police report had been filed. Information on patients' characteristics, the nature of the assault and the extent of injury was extracted from these records. A system for scoring clinical injury was developed by 4 of the physicians at the Sexual Assault Service, and a clinical injury score was assigned for each case by one physician. The relation between the outcome (in terms of whether charges were laid) and the circumstances of the case was examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 95 cases with complete medical records and information about legal outcome were identified during the 1992 calendar year. After adjustment for income level and the patient's knowledge of the assailant (either as an acquaintance or as his or her partner), the odds ratio (OR) for charge-laying in a sexual assault case with documented moderate to severe injury was 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-10.42). Socioeconomic status above the group median (defined as annual income greater than $21,893) (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.71) and knowledge of the assailant (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.52-13.79) were also associated with charge-laying. Presence of genital injury per se, age of the patient and detection of sperm by microscopy at the time of examination were not associated with the laying of charges. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that the extent of documented injury is associated with the laying of charges in cases of sexual assault. However, many questions remain about the effectiveness of the medical component of gathering such evidence. (+info)
(6/292) Highly sensitive micro-plate enzyme immunoassay screening and NCI-GC-MS confirmation of flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in hair.
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) is a benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia as a sedative hypnotic and as preanesthetic medication in European countries and Mexico. Although it has no medicinal purpose in the United States, the occurrence of its abuse is increasing. Sexual abuse of both men and women while under the influence of so-called "date-rape" drugs has been the focus of many investigations. Reported date-rape drugs include flunitrazepam (FN), clonazepam, diazepam, oxazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and many others. FN has been banned in the United States because of its alleged use in such situations. Unfortunately, the detection of FN or its metabolites 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7-AFN) and desmethylflunitrazepam in a single specimen such as urine or blood is difficult in criminal situations because of the likelihood of single-dose ingestion and the length of time since the alleged incident. Hair provides a solution to the second of these problems in that drugs tend to incorporate into hair and remain there for longer periods of time than either urine or blood. There are various techniques for the detection of FN in plasma, blood, and urine, but little work has been done with hair. Hair collection is a virtually noninvasive procedure that can supply information on drug use for several months preceding collection. The objective of this paper was to determine if a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay system was sufficiently sensitive for the routine screening of 7-AFN in hair by the development of extraction procedures and optimization of the immunoassay kit. Further, this study used the same solid-phase extraction to isolate FN and its major metabolite, 7-AFN, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization for confirmation. Two seven-point standard curves were established ranging from 0.5 pg/mg to 100 pg/mg for 7-AFN and 2.5 pg/mg to 200 pg/mg for FN with respective deuterated internal standards. A replicate analysis of controls was performed to establish inter- and intraday variabilities. Two suicide cases along with one alleged date-rape case and one case of an emergency room patient whose blood screened positive for benzodiazepines were analyzed. All the hair specimens screened positive for benzodiazepines using micro-plate enzyme immunoassay. Two cases, including the date-rape case, were negative for FN and 7-AFN, and two postmortem hair samples were confirmed positive for FN and its metabolite. (+info)
(7/292) Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in biological specimens by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry.
A simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure for the analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in biological fluids without conversion to its lactone, gamma-butyrolactone, is described. Following derivatization to its di-TMS derivative, GHB was detected using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry. Diethylene glycol was used as the internal standard. The limit of quantitation in 1 mL of blood was 1 mg/L, and a linear response was observed over the concentration range 1 to 100 mg/L. Coefficients of variation for both intra-assay precision and interassay reproducibility ranged between 3.9 and 12.0%. GHB was detected in the blood of a sexual assault victim (3.2 mg/L), in the blood of two driving (DUI) cases (33 and 34 mg/L), and in the blood and urine of two nonfatal GHB-overdose cases (blood 130 and 221 mg/L; urine 1.6 and 2.2 g/L). The observed clinical symptoms ranged from confusion, disorientation, vomiting, and nystagmus to ataxia, sinus bradycardia, unconsciousness, and apnea. (+info)
(8/292) Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.
The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection. (+info)