Receptor activator of NF-kappaB recruits multiple TRAF family adaptors and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) is a recently cloned member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and its function has been implicated in osteoclast differentiation and dendritic cell survival. Many of the TNFR family receptors recruit various members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family for transduction of their signals to NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In this study, the involvement of TRAF family members and the activation of the JNK pathway in signal transduction by RANK were investigated. TRAF1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 were found to bind RANK in vitro. Association of RANK with each of these TRAF proteins was also detected in vivo. Expression of RANK in cultured cells also induced the activation of JNK, which was blocked by a dominant-negative form of JNK. Furthermore, by employing various C-terminal deletion mutants of RANK, the regions responsible for TRAF interaction and JNK activation were identified. TRAF5 was determined to bind to the C-terminal 11 amino acids and the other TRAF members to a region N-terminal to the TRAF5 binding site. The domain responsible for JNK activation was localized to the same region where TRAF1, 2, 3, and 6 bound, which suggests that these TRAF molecules might mediate the RANK-induced JNK activation. (+info)
TRANCE, a TNF family member, is differentially expressed on T cell subsets and induces cytokine production in dendritic cells.
TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) is a member of the TNF family recently identified in activated T cells. We report here that TRANCE mRNA is constitutively expressed in memory, but not naive, T cells and in single-positive thymocytes. Upon TCR/CD3 stimulation, TRANCE mRNA and surface protein expression are rapidly up-regulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which can be further enhanced on CD4+ T cells by CD28-mediated costimulation. However, TRANCE induction is significantly suppressed when cells are stimulated in the presence of IL-4, but is not modified in the presence of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-2. High levels of TRANCE receptor expression are found on mature dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we show that activated T and B cells also express TRANCE receptor, but only at low levels. TRANCE, however, does not exert any significant effect on the proliferation, activation, or survival of those cells. In DCs, TRANCE induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1) and T cell growth and differentiation factors (IL-12, IL-15) in addition to enhancing DC survival. Moreover, TRANCE cooperates with CD40 ligand or TNF-alpha to further increase the viability of DCs, suggesting that several TNF-related molecules on activated T cells may cooperatively regulate the function and survival of DCs to enhance T cell-mediated immune responses. (+info)
Activation of NF-kappaB by RANK requires tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase. Identification of a novel TRAF6 interaction motif.
Various members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily activate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways through their interaction with TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK). We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) interacts with TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6 and that its overexpression activates NF-kappaB and JNK pathways. Through a detailed mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of RANK, we demonstrate that TRAF2 and TRAF5 bind to consensus TRAF binding motifs located in the C terminus at positions 565-568 and 606-611, respectively. In contrast, TRAF6 interacts with a novel motif located between residues 340 and 358 of RANK. Furthermore, transfection experiments with RANK and its deletion mutants in human embryonic 293 cells revealed that the TRAF6-binding region (340-358), but not the TRAF2 or TRAF5-binding region, is necessary and sufficient for RANK-induced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, a kinase mutant of NIK (NIK-KM) inhibited RANK-induced NF-kappaB activation. However, RANK-mediated JNK activation required a distal portion (427-603) of RANK containing the TRAF2-binding domain. Thus, our results indicate that RANK interacts with various TRAFs through distinct motifs and activates NF-kappaB via a novel TRAF6 interaction motif, which then activates NIK, thus leading to NF-kappaB activation, whereas RANK most likely activates JNK through a TRAF2-interacting region in RANK. (+info)
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand.
A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically to RANK expressed by transfected cell lines and purified osteoclast progenitors. Transgenic mice expressing a soluble RANK-Fc fusion protein have severe osteopetrosis because of a reduction in osteoclasts, similar to OPG transgenic mice. Recombinant RANK-Fc binds with high affinity to OPGL in vitro and blocks osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polyclonal Ab against the RANK extracellular domain promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures suggesting that RANK activation mediates the effects of OPGL on the osteoclast pathway. These data indicate that OPGL-induced osteoclastogenesis is directly mediated through RANK on osteoclast precursor cells. (+info)
TRANCE, a tumor necrosis factor family member critical for CD40 ligand-independent T helper cell activation.
CD40 ligand (CD40L), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member, plays a critical role in antigen-specific T cell responses in vivo. CD40L expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells stimulates antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, resulting in the upregulation of costimulatory molecules and the production of various inflammatory cytokines required for CD4(+) T cell priming in vivo. However, CD40L- or CD40-deficient mice challenged with viruses mount protective CD4(+) T cell responses that produce normal levels of interferon gamma, suggesting a CD40L/CD40-independent mechanism of CD4(+) T cell priming that to date has not been elucidated. Here we show that CD4(+) T cell responses to viral infection were greatly diminished in CD40-deficient mice by administration of a soluble form of TNF-related activation-induced cytokine receptor (TRANCE-R) to inhibit the function of another TNF family member, TRANCE. Thus, the TRANCE/TRANCE-R interaction provides costimulation required for efficient CD4(+) T cell priming during viral infection in the absence of CD40L/CD40. These results also indicate that not even the potent inflammatory microenvironment induced by viral infections is sufficient to elicit efficient CD4(+) T cell priming without proper costimulation provided by the TNF family (CD40L or TRANCE). Moreover, the data suggest that TRANCE/TRANCE-R may be a novel and important target for immune intervention. (+info)
Promoter structure of mouse RANKL/TRANCE/OPGL/ODF gene.
Receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/tumor necrosis factor-related activation induced cytokine (TRANCE)/osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)/osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) is a membrane-bound signal transducer responsible for differentiation and maintenance of osteoclasts. To elucidate the mechanism regulating RANKL/TRANCE/OPGL/ODF gene expression, we cloned the 5'-flanking basic promoter region of the mouse RANKL/TRANCE/OPGL/ODF gene and characterized it by transient transfection studies and genomic Southern blot analysis. Inverted TATA- and CAAT-boxes and a putative Cbfa1/Osf2/AML3 binding domain constituted the basic promoter structure. The repeated half-sites for the vitamin D3 (VitD3) and glucocorticoid receptors were located at -935 and -640, respectively. Transient transfection studies revealed that short-term treatment with 1alpha,25(OH)2 VitD3 or dexamethasone increased luciferase activity up to 204% and 178%, respectively; on the other hand, treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not affect the promoter activity. Since the expression of Cbfa1/Osf2/AML3 is also regulated by VitD3, 1alpha,25(OH)2 VitD3 might affect RANKL/TRANCE/OPGL/ODF gene expression both directly and indirectly. CpG methylation was observed dominantly in mouse stromal cells, ST2, of a later passage which ceased to support in vitro osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that the methylation status of the CpG loci in the RANKL/TRANCE/OPGL/ODF gene promoter may be one of the influential cis-regulating factors. (+info)
Evidence for a role of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme-like protease in shedding of TRANCE, a TNF family member involved in osteoclastogenesis and dendritic cell survival.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), a member of the TNF family, is a dendritic cell survival factor and is essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In this report we demonstrate (i) that TRANCE, like TNF-alpha, is made as a membrane-anchored precursor, which is released from the plasma membrane by a metalloprotease; (ii) that soluble TRANCE has potent dendritic cell survival and osteoclastogenic activity; (iii) that the metalloprotease-disintegrin TNF-alpha convertase (TACE) can cleave immunoprecipitated TRANCE in vitro in a fashion that mimics the cleavage observed in tissue culture cells; and (iv) that in vitro cleavage of a TRANCE ectodomain/CD8 fusion protein and of a peptide corresponding to the TRANCE cleavage site by TACE occurs at the same site that is used when TRANCE is shed from cells into the supernatant. We propose that the TRANCE ectodomain is released from cells by TACE or a related metalloprotease-disintegrin, and that this release is an important component of the function of TRANCE in bone and immune homeostasis. (+info)
The ligand for osteoprotegerin (OPGL) directly activates mature osteoclasts.
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and OPG-ligand (OPGL) potently inhibit and stimulate, respectively, osteoclast differentiation (Simonet, W.S., D.L. Lacey, C.R. Dunstan, M. Kelley, M.-S. Chang, R. Luethy, H.Q. Nguyen, S. Wooden, L. Bennett, T. Boone, et al. 1997. Cell. 89:309-319; Lacey, D.L., E. Timms, H.-L. Tan, M.J. Kelley, C.R. Dunstan, T. Burgess, R. Elliott, A. Colombero, G. Elliott, S. Scully, et al. 1998. Cell. 93: 165-176), but their effects on mature osteoclasts are not well understood. Using primary cultures of rat osteoclasts on bone slices, we find that OPGL causes approximately sevenfold increase in total bone surface erosion. By scanning electron microscopy, OPGL-treated osteoclasts generate more clusters of lacunae on bone suggesting that multiple, spatially associated cycles of resorption have occurred. However, the size of individual resorption events are unchanged by OPGL treatment. Mechanistically, OPGL binds specifically to mature OCs and rapidly (within 30 min) induces actin ring formation; a marked cytoskeletal rearrangement that necessarily precedes bone resorption. Furthermore, we show that antibodies raised against the OPGL receptor, RANK, also induce actin ring formation. OPGL-treated mice exhibit increases in blood ionized Ca++ within 1 h after injections, consistent with immediate OC activation in vivo. Finally, we find that OPG blocks OPGL's effects on both actin ring formation and bone resorption. Together, these findings indicate that, in addition to their effects on OC precursors, OPGL and OPG have profound and direct effects on mature OCs and indicate that the OC receptor, RANK, mediates OPGL's effects. (+info)