The effect of using a tourniquet on the intensity of postoperative pain in forearm fractures. A randomized study in 32 surgically treated patients.
We have analysed the relationship between the intensity of postoperative pain and the use of a pneumatic tourniquet in procedures for operative fixation of fractures of the forearm. Thirty-two patients were divided randomly into two groups as a control (NT) and tourniquet (T). The pain scores in the NT group were significantly lower. Patients over the age of 30 had notably more pain than those younger after the use of a tourniquet. Avoidance of the tourniquet gave better postoperative analgesia in male patients and in those with comminuted fractures. When a tourniquet was used the best results were obtained if it was kept inflated for less than one hour. (+info)
Systemic hormonal, electrolyte, and substrate changes after non-thermal limb injury in children.
Relatively little is known regarding the hormonal changes after injury in children. Adult protocols are often applied to children, although the latter often have different physiological responses to trauma. Twenty children with an angulated displaced fracture of the radius and/or ulna (injury severity score 9) were studied prospectively for changes in adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin, urea, electrolytes, and glucose. Two blood samples were taken: one an arrival at the accident and emergency department and one preoperatively several hours later. There were marked increases in adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, and arginine vasopressin above the normal range. Five (25%) cases demonstrated greater early increases in adrenaline than those reported for adult injuries of similar severity. Early hypokalaemia in four cases had corrected towards normal within a few hours, without potassium supplementation. (+info)
Salvage of the head of the radius after fracture-dislocation of the elbow. A case report.
We describe a patient with a Mason type-III fracture of the head of the radius associated with traumatic dislocation of the elbow. The radial head was intact throughout its circumference despite being completely detached from the shaft and devoid of any soft-tissue attachments. Severe comminution of the radial neck prevented reconstruction by internal fixation and precluded prosthetic replacement of the head. The head was fixed to the shaft with a tricortical iliac-crest bone graft which replaced the neck. Two years later, the patient had a stable elbow with flexion from 10 degrees to 130 degrees. Radiologically, the head of the radius appeared to be viable and the bone graft had incorporated. (+info)
Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation in an international gymnast.
Elbow dislocation is a rare injury in elite athletes. We report an unusual case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocations with a unilateral radial head fracture in an international female athlete competing on the asymmetrical bars. These injuries require prompt reduction and immediate mobilisation if an abrupt end to a promising career is to be prevented. (+info)
The wrist of the formula 1 driver.
OBJECTIVES: During formula 1 driving, repetitive cumulative trauma may provoke nerve disorders such as nerve compression syndrome as well as osteoligament injuries. A study based on interrogatory and clinical examination of 22 drivers was carried out during the 1998 formula 1 World Championship in order to better define the type and frequency of these lesions. METHODS: The questions investigated nervous symptoms, such as paraesthesia and diminishment of sensitivity, and osteoligamentous symptoms, such as pain, specifying the localisation (ulnar side, dorsal aspect of the wrist, snuff box) and the effect of the wrist position on the intensity of the pain. Clinical examination was carried out bilaterally and symmetrically. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 22 drivers reported symptoms. One suffered cramp in his hands at the end of each race and one described a typical forearm effort compartment syndrome. Six drivers had effort "osteoligamentous" symptoms: three scapholunate pain; one medial hypercompression of the wrist; two sequellae of a distal radius fracture. Seven reported nerve disorders: two effort carpal tunnel syndromes; one typical carpal tunnel syndrome; one effort cubital tunnel syndrome; three paraesthesia in all fingers at the end of a race, without any objective signs. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be the first report of upper extremity disorders in competition drivers. The use of a wrist pad to reduce the effects of vibration may help to prevent trauma to the wrist in formula 1 drivers. (+info)
Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing.
AIM: To study the effects of velvet antler (VA) total polypeptides (VATP) and VA polypeptides, VAP-A, VAP-B, and VAP-C on proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precusors. METHODS: Chondrocytes (rabbit and human fetus) and osteoblast precusors (chick embryo) were incubated in the culture medium containing VATP or VAP-A, VAP-B, and VAP-C. [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA was measured. Fracture healing-promoting action of VATP was determined in rats. RESULTS: VATP 50-200 mg.L-1 and VAP-B 12.5, 25, and 50 mg.L-1 showed most marked proliferation-promoting activity for rabbit costed chondrocytes and increased incorporation of [3H]TdR from (73 +/- 9) Bq (control group) to (272 +/- 55), (327 +/- 38), and (415 +/- 32) Bq, respectively (P < 0.01). The activity of VAP-A was weaker than that of VAP-B, and VAP-C had no activity. VATP 10 and 20 mg.kg-1 by local injection into the cross-section fracture area accelerated healing of radial fracture. The healing rate of VATP-treated group was higher (75%) than that of control group (25%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: VATP accelerated fracture healing by stimulating proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors. (+info)
Safety of the limited open technique of bone-transfixing threaded-pin placement for external fixation of distal radial fractures: a cadaver study.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety of threaded-pin placement for fixation of distal radial fractures using a limited open approach. DESIGN: A cadaver study. METHODS: Four-millimetre Schanz threaded pins were inserted into the radius and 3-mm screw pins into the second metacarpal of 20 cadaver arms. Each threaded pin was inserted in the dorsoradial oblique plane through a limited open, 5- to 10-mm longitudinal incision. Open exploration of the threaded-pin sites was then carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury to nerves, muscles and tendons and the proximity of these structures to the threaded pins. RESULTS: There were no injuries to the extensor tendons, superficial radial or lateral antebrachial nerves of the forearm, or to the soft tissues overlying the metacarpal. The lateral antebrachial nerve was the closest nerve to the radial pins and a branch of the superficial radial nerve was closest to the metacarpal pins. The superficial radial nerve was not close to the radial pins. CONCLUSION: Limited open threaded-pin fixation of distal radial fractures in the dorsolateral plane appears to be safe. (+info)
Transcranial doppler detection of fat emboli.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fat embolism syndrome (FES) is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of pulmonary and neurological symptoms as well as skin and mucosal petechiae in the setting of long-bone fractures or their surgical repair. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and effective treatments are lacking. We present 5 patients with long-bone fractures in whom in vivo microembolism was detected by transcranial Doppler. METHODS: Five patients with long-bone fractures were monitored with transcranial Doppler for microembolic signals (MESs) after trauma. Two patients also had intraoperative monitoring. A TC-2020 instrument equipped with MES detection software was used. Detected signals were saved for subsequent review. Selected signals satisfied criteria defined previously and were categorized as large or small. RESULTS: Cerebral microembolism was detected in all 5 patients and was transient, resolving within 4 days of injury. Intraoperative monitoring revealed an increase in MESs during intramedullary nail insertion. The characteristics of MESs after injury varied among patients, with large signals being more frequent in the only patient with a patent foramen ovale. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral microembolism after long-bone fractures can be detected in vivo and monitored over time. These findings may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. (+info)