Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study.
The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy. (+info)
A 50-year-old female presented with primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the right cerebellopontine angle manifesting as right facial nerve paresis. She had undergone gross total removal of a right cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst 10 years before and had done well until recently. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous tumor with markedly enhanced irregular margin. Subtotal removal of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated SCC. After surgery, she underwent chemotherapy and gamma radiosurgery. She is now well 5 years after the diagnosis of SCC. (+info)
Early and delayed MR and PET changes after selective temporomesial radiosurgery in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
We report a patient with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. In lieu of a microsurgical procedure, an entorhinoamygdalohippocampectomy was performed with a gamma knife and low marginal doses (25 Gy). The clinical and imaging studies, including CT, MR imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and long-term follow-up MR examinations, are reported. The patient has been seizure-free since the day of treatment, with no clinical complications. MR studies accurately depicted the effect on the target structures and the transient secondary changes around them. FDG-PET scans showed decreased metabolism after gamma knife surgery throughout the anteromesial part of the epileptogenic temporal lobe. This metabolic decrease was reversible in the lateral temporal cortex. Our case suggests that gamma knife surgery is a promising tool for use as a minimally invasive approach to the treatment of epilepsy. (+info)
Radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: is an early angiogram needed?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiosurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has slow and progressive vasoocclusive effects. We sought to determine if early posttherapeutic angiography provides relevant information for the management of radiosurgically treated AVMs. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1993, the progress of 138 of 197 cerebral AVMs treated by linear accelerator (Linac) was regularly followed by angiographic study. On each posttherapeutic angiogram ("early," 6-18-month follow-up; "intermediate," 19-29-month-follow-up; and "late," > 30-month follow-up), the degree of reduction across the greatest diameter of the nidus and hemodynamic modifications were analyzed. Each cerebral AVM was qualitatively classified into one of the following categories after early angiographic study: 0%-reduced, 25%-reduced, 50%-reduced, 75%-reduced, and 100%-reduced or "complete obliteration." Vasoocclusive progress for each category was then studied over time. RESULTS: Three (10%) of the 30 0-25%-reduced, eight (38%) of 21 50%-reduced, and 27 (84%) of 32 75%-reduced cerebral AVMs showed complete obliteration after further follow-up. The three 0-25%-reduced AVMS that went on to complete obliteration underwent very early angiography (6-7 months). Fifty-five cerebral AVMs showed complete obliteration on early angiograms (40%). In this group, more follow-up, when performed, confirmed complete obliteration in all cases (n = 17). CONCLUSION: An early angiogram is needed to predict the effectiveness of radiosurgery. Important AVM changes seen on early angiograms are highly correlated with treatment success. Moreover, no or minor changes seen on early angiograms are highly predictive of radiosurgical failure. For these patients, further treatment should be discussed promptly. (+info)
Successful radiosurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformation accompanied by venous malformation.
We present a patient with a rare cerebrovascular malformation consisting of a typical arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a nidus and a venous malformation (VM) in a single lesion. The AVM component was successfully obliterated by radiosurgery, whereas the VM was completely preserved. Radiosurgery can be an effective treatment technique for treating this type of malformation because it allows targeted obliteration of the AVM yet carries a low risk of damaging the venous drainage toward and away from the VM. (+info)
Third International Meeting on von Hippel-Lindau disease.
Five years after the identification of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, physicians, scientists and concerned VHL family members met to review the current state of knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment of VHL and to summarize the latest information on the biochemistry of the VHL protein (pVHL). The NIH and University of Pennsylvania groups reported the detection of germ-line mutations in 100% (93 of 93) of VHL families studied. Several studies determined the frequency of VHL germ-line mutations in individuals with a single manifestation of VHL without a family history of VHL. National groups to improve the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with VHL disease have been established in Great Britain, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Evidence for the existence of genes that modify the expression of VHL was presented. The VHL protein appears to have several distinct functions: (a) down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs; (b) proper assembly of the extracellular fibronectin matrix; (c) regulation of exit from the cell cycle; and (d) regulation of expression of carbonic anhydrases 9 and 12. (+info)
Multidisciplinary approach to arteriovenous malformations.
The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) depends on the efforts of a multidisciplinary team whose ultimate goal is to achieve better results when compared to the natural history of the pathology. The role of adjuvant treatment modalities such as radiosurgery and endovascular embolization is discussed. Treatment strategies and surgical results from a personal series of 344 patients operated in a 10-year period are reviewed. The Spetzler and Martin classification was modified to include subgroups IIIA (large size grade III AVMs) and IIIB (small grade III AVMs in eloquent areas) to assist the surgical resection criteria. The treatment strategy followed was surgery for grades I and II, embolization plus surgery for grade IIIA, radiosurgery for grade IIIB, and conservative for grades IV and V. According to the new proposed classification 45 (13%) patients were grade I, 96 (28%) were grade II, 44 (13%) grade IIIA, 97 (28%) grade IIIB, 45 (13%) grade IV, and 17 (5%) were grade V. As for surgical results 85.8% of the patients had a good outcome (no additional neurological deficit), 12.5% had a fair outcome (minor neurological deficit), 0.6% had a bad outcome (major neurological deficit), and 1.2% died. These figures indicate that the treatment of AVMs can achieve better results compared to the natural history if managed by a well trained group of specialists led by an experienced neurosurgeon. (+info)
Multimodality treatment for large and critically located arteriovenous malformations.
To define the current status of the multimodality treatment for large and critically located arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), we have made a retrospective review of 54 consecutive patients with Spetzler-Martin grade IV and V AVMs. The size of nidus is larger than 3 cm in diameter in all cases. Initially, all but one were treated by nidus embolization with the aim of size reduction. Only one patient had complete nidus occlusion by embolization alone. In 52 patients, the obliteration rate of nidus volume averaged 60% after embolization. Ten patients underwent complete surgical resection of AVMs following embolization with no postoperative neurological deterioration. Thirty-one patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery following embolization. At the time of this analysis, 30 patients underwent follow-up angiography 2-3 years after radiosurgery. The results of radiosurgery correlated well with the preradiosurgical AVM volume. Of 16 patients with small residual AVMs (< 10 cm3, a mean volume of 4.7 cm3), nine (56%) had complete obliteration, and six (38%) had near-total or subtotal obliteration by 3 years after radiosurgery. In contrast, of 14 patients with large residual AVMs (> or = 10 cm3, a mean volume of 17.9 cm3), only two (14%) had complete obliteration, and eight (57%) had near-total or subtotal obliteration. Repeat radiosurgery was performed for the patients with remaining AVMs at 3-year follow-up review. This study indicates that a certain number of large and critically located AVMs can be safely treated by either microsurgery or radiosurgery following a significant volume reduction by nidus embolization. The present data also suggest the need and possible role of repeat radiosurgery in improving complete obliteration rate of large difficult AVMs, since many of those AVMs have significantly responded to initial radiosurgery. (+info)