(1/835) Similarities and differences in 111In- and 90Y-labeled 1B4M-DTPA antiTac monoclonal antibody distribution.

Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) labeled with 90Y are being used for radioimmunotherapy. Because 90Y is a beta emitter, quantitative information from imaging is suboptimal. With the concept of a "matched pair" of isotopes, 111In is used as a surrogate markerfor90Y. We evaluated the differences in biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled murine antiTac MoAb directed against the IL-2Ralpha receptor. METHODS: The antiTac was conjugated to the 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA, also known as MX-DTPA). Nine patients with adult T-cell leukemia were treated. Patients received approximately 185 MBq (5 mCi) 111In-labeled antiTac for imaging and 185-555 MBq (5-15 mCi) 90Y-labeled antiTac for therapy. The immunoreactivity of 111In-labeled antiTac was 90%+/-6%, whereas for 90Y-labeled antiTac, it was 74%+/-12%. RESULTS: The differences in blood and plasma kinetics of the two isotopes were small. The area undemeath the blood radioactivity curve was 1.91 percentage+/-0.58 percentage injected dose (%ID) x h/mL for 111In and 1.86%+/-0.64 %ID x h/mL for 90Y. Urinary excretion of 90Y was significantly greater than that of 111In in the first 24 h (P = 0.001), but later, the excretion of 111In was significantly greater (P = 0.001 to P = 0.04). Core biopsies of bone marrow showed a mean of 0.0029+/-0.0012 %ID/g for 111In, whereas the 90Y concentration was 0.0049+/-0.0021 %ID/g. Analyses of activity bound to circulating cells showed concentrations of 500-30,000 molecules of antiTac per cell. When cell-bound activity was corrected for immunoreactive fraction, the ratio of 111In to 90Y in circulating cells was 1.11+/-0.17. Three biopsies of tumor-involved skin showed ratios of 111In to 90Y of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1. CONCLUSION: This study shows that differences typically ranging from 10% to 15% exist in the biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled antiTac. Thus, it appears that 111In can be used as a surrogate marker for 90Y when labeling antiTac with the 1 B4M chelate, although underestimates of the bone marrow radiation dose should be anticipated.  (+info)

(2/835) 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression in patients with lymphoma.

Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma when labeled with 1311. Radiometal-labeled antibodies provide higher tumor radiation doses than corresponding 1311 antibodies. 67Cu has an exceptional combination of properties desirable for radioimmunotherapy, including gamma and beta emissions for imaging and therapy, respectively, a biocompatible half-time and absence of pathways contributing to myelotoxicity. The radioimmunoconjugate, 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1, has been shown to be efficacious in nude mice bearing human Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) xenografts. Based on these results, a clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in patients with lymphoma was initiated. METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced stage 3 or 4 lymphoma were given a preload dose of unmodified Lym-1, then an imaging dose of 126-533 MBq (3.4-14.4 mCi) 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1. Total Lym-1 ranged from 25 to 70 mg dependent on the specific activity of the radioimmunoconjugate and was infused at a rate of 0.5-1 mg/min. Imaging, physical examination, including caliper measurement of superficial tumors, and analysis of blood, urine and fecal samples were performed for a period of 6-13 d after infusion to assess pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, toxicity and tumor regression. RESULTS: In 7 patients, in whom superficial tumors had been accurately measured, tumors regressed from 18% to 75% (mean 48%) within several days of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 infusion. The uptake and biological half-time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors were greater than those of normal tissues, except the mean liver half-time exceeded the mean tumor half-time. The mean tumor-to-marrow radiation ratio was 32:1, tumor-to-total body was 24:1 and tumor-to-liver was 1.5:1. Images were of very good quality; tumors and normal organs were readily identified. Mild and transient Lym-1 toxicity occurred in 6 patients; 1 patient developed a human antimouse antibody. There were no significant changes in blood counts or serum chemistries indicative of radiation toxicity. CONCLUSION: Because of the long residence time of 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1 in tumors, high therapeutic ratios were achieved and, remarkably, numerous tumor regressions were observed after imaging doses. The results indicate considerable therapeutic potential for 67Cu-21T-BAT-Lym-1.  (+info)

(3/835) 67Cu-versus 131I-labeled Lym-1 antibody: comparative pharmacokinetics and dosimetry in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Antilymphoma mouse monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Lym-1, labeled with 67Cu or 131I, has demonstrated promising results in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for lymphoma. Although 131I has played a central role in RIT thus far, some properties of 67Cu are preferable. A subset of our patients received both 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, allowing a comparative evaluation of the two radiopharmaceuticals administered to a matched population of patients. Four patients with B-lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that had progressed despite standard therapy entered trials of 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, which were injected 3-26 days apart. Lym-1 was conjugated to 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,7,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N ',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid (BAT) via 2-iminothiolane (2IT) and radiolabeled with 67Cu to prepare 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1; 131I-Lym-1 was preparred by the chloramine-T reaction. Planar imaging was used to quantitate 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 or 131I-Lym-1 in organs and tumors daily for 3 days or longer. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 exhibited higher peak concentration in 92% (12 of 13) of tumors and a longer biological half-time in every tumor than 131I-Lym-1. The mean tumor concentration (%ID/g) of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was 1.7, 2.2, and 2.8 times that of 131I-Lym-1 at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively. The mean biological half-times of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 in tumor were 8.8 and 2.3 days, respectively. Consequently, the mean tumor radiation dose delivered by 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was twice that of 131I-Lym-1, 2.8 (range 0.8-6.7), and 1.4 (range 0.4-35) Gy/GBq, respectively. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 delivered a lower marrow radiation dose than 131I-Lym-1; hence, the tumor:marrow therapeutic indices were 29 and 9.7, respectively. Radiation doses from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 to normal tissues were similar except for liver, which received a higher dose from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1. Images obtained with 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 were superior. Radiation dosimetry data for 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 agreed with corresponding data from the larger populations of patients from which the matched population for the current study was drawn. In conclusion, 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 given to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients in close temporal proximity to 131I-Lym-1 exhibited greater uptake and longer retention in tumor, resulting in higher radiation dose and therapeutic index than 131I-Lym-1. These as well as other factors suggest that 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 may be superior to 131I-Lym-1 for RIT.  (+info)

(4/835) Intratumoral distribution of two consecutive injections of chimeric antibody G250 in primary renal cell carcinoma: implications for fractionated dose radioimmunotherapy.

Tumor uptake of the chimeric G250 (cG250) monoclonal antibody (mAb) in patients with primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the highest reported in solid tumors. However, as observed in other tumor types, the intratumoral distribution of the antibody is highly heterogeneous, which may limit the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy. A number of highly dynamic physiological factors have been postulated that may contribute to heterogeneous tumor uptake of antibodies. Their impact on tumor uptake of antibodies may vary from one tumor region to another as well as from one day to the next. Here, we report on a clinical study that was designed to investigate whether the pattern of mAb cG250 uptake within RCC tumors is altered with subsequent injections. Ten patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RCC were studied. Nine days before surgery, patients received 125I-cG250 (5 mg of cG250, 50 microCi of 125I), followed by a second injection of 131I-cG250 (5 mg of cG250, 3.5 mCi of 131I) 4 days later. Postsurgery, the tumor was cut into (1-cm) thick slices. Slices were imaged on a gamma camera, and the slice with the most pronounced heterogeneity in 131I-cG250 distribution was selected and cut into 1-cm3 cubes. Each cube was analyzed for 121I-cG250 and 131I-cG250 uptake, and the 131I/125I ratio was determined. For each tumor slice, the distribution patterns of both isotopes were reconstructed and compared with each other. All tumors analyzed showed a heterogeneous distribution of both isotopes throughout the tumor slice; focal uptake in some areas of a tumor reached very high levels (up to 0.19% injected dose/g), whereas other tumorous areas of the same slice showed much lower uptake (as low as 0.0047% injected dose/g). Remarkably, in all tumors, the distribution pattern of both injections was identical: without exception, in all samples analyzed (n = 692), the uptake of 125I-cG250 was similar to 131I-cG250 uptake. Overall, the 131I/125I ratio was 1.64+/-0.31 (mean+/-SD). The constant 131I/125I ratios, observed in all tumor samples investigated, indicate that the tumor parameters governing cG250 mAb uptake were not altered significantly within the time period studied. In addition, the results of this study suggest that multiple radiolabeled antibody injections, administered within short time periods, will target the same areas within a tumor and, thus, will not solve the problem of heterogeneous tumor uptake of antibody.  (+info)

(5/835) Dosimetry of 131I-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody administered into surgically created resection cavities in patients with malignant brain tumors.

The objective of this study was to perform the dosimetry of 131I-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody (MAb) in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors, treated by direct injections of MAb into surgically created resection cavities (SCRCs). METHODS: Absorbed dose estimates were performed for nine patients. Dosimetry was performed retrospectively using probe counts (during patient isolation) and whole-body and SPECT images thereafter. Absorbed doses were calculated for the SCRC interface and for regions of interest (ROIs) 1 and 2 cm thick, measured from the margins of cavity interface. Also, mean absorbed doses were calculated for normal brain, liver, spleen, thyroid gland, stomach, bone marrow and whole body. The average residence time for the SCRC was 111 h (65-200h). RESULTS: The average absorbed dose per unit injected activity (range) to the SCRC interface and ROIs 1 and 2 cm thick from the cavity interface were 31.9 (7.8-84.2), 1.9 (0.7-3.6) and 1.0 (0.4-1.8) cGy/MBq, respectively. Average absorbed doses per unit administered activity to brain, liver, spleen, thyroid, stomach, bone marrow and whole body were 0.18, 0.03, 0.08, 0.05, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.01 cGy/MBq, respectively. The high absorbed dose delivered to the SCRC interface may have produced an increase in cavity volume independent of tumor progression. CONCLUSION: At the maximum tolerated dose of 3700 MBq 131I-labeled 81C6 MAb, the absorbed doses to the SCRC interface and ROIs of 1 and 2 cm thickness were estimated to be 1180, 71 and 39 Gy, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose to the brain was 6.5 Gy. There was no neurological toxicity and minimal hematologic toxicity at this maximum tolerated administration level.  (+info)

(6/835) Intratumoral distribution of radiolabeled antibody and radioimmunotherapy in experimental liver metastases model of nude mouse.

The biodistribution and intratumoral distribution of radiolabeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody in experimental liver metastases and the therapeutic effect of 131I-labeled anti-CEA antibody on the metastases were studied. METHODS: Three weeks after an intrasplenic injection of human colon cancer cells, mice received an intravenous injection of 125I- or 111In-labeled anti-CEA antibody F33-104. The biodistribution and tumor penetration of radiolabeled antibody were examined by using quantitative autoradiography. To evaluate the therapeutic effect, 5.55, 9.25 or 11.1 MBq (150, 250 or 300 microCi) 131I-labeled F33-104 were injected into groups of mice that had micrometastases smaller than 1 mm. Control groups were injected with phosphate-buffered saline or 131I-labeled control antibody. Mice were killed 3 wk later to determine the size of liver metastases. RESULTS: 1251-labeled F33-104 showed a high accumulation in the liver metastases (percentage of injected dose per gram of metastases [%ID/g] >24%, metastasis-to-liver ratio >9.8, metastasis-to-blood ratio >2.1); however, its accumulation was heterogeneous or peripheral in the nodules more than 1 mm in diameter. When the antibody dose was increased, antibody penetration was improved, but tumor uptake of radioactivity and specificity ratios decreased. In mice with large metastases, radioactivity in the normal tissue was lower than that in mice with small metastases, resulting in higher metastasis-to-background ratios. 111In-labeled antibody showed even higher tumor uptake than 125I-labeled antibody (>51 %ID/g). Metastases formation was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by 131I-labeled F33-104 injection (5 of 8 mice had no macroscopic tumor after an injection of 5.55 MBq (150 microCi), and all mice had no visible metastasis after an injection of 9.25 or 11.1 MBq [250 or 300 microCi]), whereas tumor progression was seen in the control groups. CONCLUSION: Liver metastases had easy accessibility to the antibody. Micrometastases of less than 0.5 mm in diameter showed homogeneous intratumoral distribution of injected antibody and were successfully treated with 131I-labeled antibody. Very high uptake and satisfactory metastasis-to-liver ratios with 111In-labeled antibody suggest that the use of a radiometal with high beta-energy, such as 90Y or 188Re, is preferable for the successful radioimmunotherapy of metastases larger than 1 mm.  (+info)

(7/835) Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 intraperitoneal administration in patients with ovarian cancer: effect of dose and EDTA coadministration on pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) antigen is present on a high percentage of tumor types including ovarian carcinomas. Antibody B72.3 is a murine monoclonal recognizing the surface domain of the TAG-72 antigen and has been widely used in human clinical trials. After our initial encouraging studies (M. G. Rosenblum et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 83: 1629-1636, 1991) of tissue disposition, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics in 9 patients with ovarian cancer, we designed an escalating dose, multi-arm Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 i.p. administration. In the first arm of the study, patients (3 pts/dose level) received an i.p. infusion of either 2 or 10 mg of B72.3 labeled with either 1, 10, 15, or 25 mCi of 90Y. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that concentrations of 90Y-labeled B72.3 persist in peritoneal fluid with half-lives >24 h after i.p. administration. In addition, 90Y-labeled B72.3 was absorbed rapidly into the plasma with peak levels achieved within 48 h, and levels declined slowly thereafter. Cumulative urinary excretion of the 90Y label was 10-20% of the administered dose which suggests significant whole-body retention of the radiolabel. Biopsy specimens of bone and marrow obtained at 72 h after administration demonstrated significant content of the label in bone (0.015% of the dose/g) with relatively little in marrow (0.005% of the dose/g). The maximal tolerated dose was determined to be 10 mCi because of hematological toxicity and platelet suppression. This typically occurred on the 29th day after administration and was thought to be a consequence of the irradiation of the marrow from the bony deposition of the radiolabel. In an effort to suppress the bone uptake of 90Y, patients were treated with a continuous i.v. infusion of EDTA (25 mg/kg/12 h x 6) infused immediately before i.p. administration of the radiolabeled antibody. Patients (3 pts/dose level) were treated with doses of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 for a total of 38 patients. EDTA administration resulted in significant myeloprotection, which allowed escalation to the maximal tolerated dose of 40 mCi. Dose-limiting toxicity was thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Studies of plasma and peritoneal fluid pharmacokinetics demonstrate no changes compared with patients without EDTA pretreatment. Cumulative urinary excretion of the radiolabel was not increased in patients pretreated with EDTA compared with the untreated group. However, analysis of biopsy specimens of bone and marrow demonstrated that bone and marrow content of the 90Y label was 15-fold lower (<0.001% injected dose/g) than a companion group without EDTA. Four responses were noted in patients who received 15-30 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 with response durations of 1-12 months. These results demonstrate the myeloprotective ability of EDTA, which allows safe i.p. administration of higher doses of 90Y-labeled B72.3 and, therefore, clearly warrant an expanded Phase II trial in patients with minimal residual disease after standard chemotherapy or for the palliation of refractory ascites.  (+info)

(8/835) High-linear energy transfer (LET) alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors: therapeutic efficacy and dose-limiting toxicity of 213Bi- versus 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' fragments in a human colonic cancer model.

Recent studies suggest that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation may have therapeutic advantages over conventional low-LET (e.g., beta-) emissions. Furthermore, fragments may be more effective in controlling tumor growth than complete IgG. However, to the best of our knowledge, no investigators have attempted a direct comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a systemic targeted therapeutic strategy, using high-LET alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in vivo. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the toxicity and antitumor efficacy of RIT with the alpha emitter 213Bi/213Po, as compared to the beta emitter 90Y, linked to a monovalent Fab' fragment in a human colonic cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Biodistribution studies of 213Bi- or 88Y-labeled benzyl-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate-conjugated Fab' fragments of the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A were performed in nude mice bearing s.c. human colon cancer xenografts. 213Bi was readily obtained from an "in-house" 225Ac/213Bi generator. It decays by beta- and 440-keV gamma emission, with a t(1/2) of 45.6 min, as compared to the ultra-short-lived alpha emitter, 213Po (t(1/2) = 4.2 micros). For therapy, the mice were injected either with 213Bi- or 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab', whereas control groups were left untreated or were given a radiolabeled irrelevant control antibody. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of each agent was determined. The mice were treated with or without inhibition of the renal accretion of antibody fragments by D-lysine (T. M. Behr et al., Cancer Res., 55: 3825-3834, 1995), bone marrow transplantation, or combinations thereof. Myelotoxicity and potential second-organ toxicities, as well as tumor growth, were monitored at weekly intervals. Additionally, the therapeutic efficacy of both 213Bi- and 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' was compared in a GW-39 model metastatic to the liver of nude mice. In accordance with kidney uptake values of as high as > or = 80% of the injected dose per gram, the kidney was the first dose-limiting organ using both 90Y- and 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments. Application of D-lysine decreased the renal dose by >3-fold. Accordingly, myelotoxicity became dose limiting with both conjugates. By using lysine protection, the MTD of 90Y-Fab' was 250 microCi and the MTD of 213Bi-Fab' was 700 microCi, corresponding to blood doses of 5-8 Gy. Additional bone marrow transplantation allowed for an increase of the MTD of 90Y-Fab' to 400 microCi and for 213Bi-Fab' to 1100 microCi, respectively. At these very dose levels, no biochemical or histological evidence of renal damage was observed (kidney doses of <35 Gy). At equitoxic dosing, 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments were significantly more effective than the respective 90Y-labeled conjugates. In the metastatic model, all untreated controls died from rapidly progressing hepatic metastases at 6-8 weeks after tumor inoculation, whereas a histologically confirmed cure was observed in 95% of those animals treated with 700 microCi of 213Bi-Fab' 10 days after model induction, which is in contrast to an only 20% cure rate in mice treated with 250 microCi of 90Y-Fab'. These data show that RIT with alpha emitters may be therapeutically more effective than conventional beta emitters. Surprisingly, maximum tolerated blood doses were, at 5-8 Gy, very similar between high-LET alpha and low-LET beta emitters. Due to its short physical half-life, 213Bi appears to be especially suitable for use in conjunction with fast-clearing fragments.  (+info)