The potential of digital dental radiography in recording the adductor sesamoid and the MP3 stages.
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of using a recent advance in clinical radiographic technique, digital dental radiography, in recording two growth indicators: the adductor sesamoid and MP3 stages. With an exposure time five times less than that used in the conventional approach, this method shows greatest flexibility in providing a high quality digitized radiographic images of the two growth indicators under investigation. Refereed Paper (+info)
Long-term follow-up of maxillary incisors with severe apical root resorption.
The purpose of the study was to analyse the mobility of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption, at follow-up several years after active treatment, and to evaluate mobility in relation to root length and alveolar bone support. Seventy-three maxillary incisors were examined in 20 patients, 10-15 years after active treatment in 13 patients (age 24-32 years) and 5-10 years after active treatment in seven patients (age 20-25 years). All had worn fixed or removable retainers; seven still had bonded twistflex retainers. Total root length and intra-alveolar root length were measured on intra-oral radiographs. Tooth mobility was assessed clinically according to Miller's Index (0-4) and the Periotest method. Crestal alveolar bone level, periodontal pocket depth, gingival, and plaque indices, occlusal contacts during occlusion and function, and dental wear were recorded. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between tooth mobility, and total root length and intra-alveolar root length. No correlation was found between tooth mobility and retention with twistflex retainers. None of the variables for assessment of periodontal status, occlusion and function were related to total root length or tooth mobility. It is concluded that there is a risk of tooth mobility in a maxillary incisor that undergoes severe root resorption during orthodontic treatment, if the remaining total root length is < or = 9 mm. The risk is less if the remaining root length is > 9 mm. Follow-up of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption is indicated. (+info)
Digital imaging modalities for dental practice.
The introduction of the computed tomograph in the 1970s revolutionized medical diagnosis by initiating the transition from analogue to digital imaging. During this period, more specialized equipment for image processing was developed, such as cathode-ray tubes for image display, special sensors for image acquisition, and storage devices for image archiving. Digital imaging systems designed exclusively for use in dentistry were developed in the latter half of the 1980s. Some are now being clinically applied under conditions of close scrutiny to determine diagnostic accuracy, image quality, and radiation exposure to patients. This article reviews the enabling technologies of digital systems used in dentistry, and focuses upon intraoral digital imaging systems, concepts for digital image acquisition, and variations in radiation dose and their effects on diagnostic accuracy of caries detection. (+info)
Systematic reviews of selected dental caries diagnostic and management methods.
A systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted to address three related questions concerning the diagnosis and management of dental caries: a) the performance (sensitivity, specificity) of currently available diagnostic methods for carious lesions, b) the efficacy of approaches to the management of noncavitated or initial carious lesions, and c) the efficacy of preventive methods among individuals who have experienced or are expected to experience elevated incidence of carious lesions. From 1,328 caries diagnostic and 1,435 caries management reports originally identified, thirty-nine diagnostic studies and twenty-seven management studies were included in the final evidence tables. Point estimates or reasonable range estimates for the diagnostic validity of methods for the diagnosis of carious lesions could not be established from the literature reviewed. There are insufficient numbers of reports of diagnostic performance involving primary teeth, anterior teeth, and root surfaces. For posterior occlusal and proximal surfaces, quality issues and the variation among studies precludes establishing such estimates. The apparent differences in sensitivity among methods are generally smaller than the variation reported within methods. The literature on the management of noncavitated carious lesions consisted of five studies describing seven experimental interventions. Because these interventions varied extensively in terms of management methods tested as well as other study characteristics, no conclusions about the efficacy of these methods were possible. The literature on the management of individuals at elevated risk of carious lesions consisted of twenty-two studies describing twenty-nine experimental interventions. The strength of the evidence for the efficacy of fluoride varnish for prevention of dental caries in high-risk subjects was fair, and the evidence for all other methods was incomplete. Because the evidence for efficacy for some methods, including chlorhexidine, sucrose-free gum, and combined chlorhexidine-fluoride methods, is suggestive but not conclusive, these interventions represent fruitful areas for further research. (+info)
An introduction to digital radiography in dentistry.
The aim of this article is to explain the basic principles of digital radiography, and to discuss the intra- and extra-oral imaging systems currently available. There are two main types of digital sensors available. One is based on charge coupled device technology and the other consists of phosphor storage plates. The advantages and disadvantages of each are highlighted with particular attention to orthodontics. (+info)
Comparisons of physical imaging properties among three kinds of imaging plates used in photostimulable phosphor systems for dental radiography.
The purpose of this study was to compare the physical imaging properties of three kinds of imaging plates (IPs) used with two photostimulable phosphor systems for dental radiography: HR-V, used with the Digora, BAS-SR, and ST-V, used with the DenOptix for intraoral radiography and panoramic radiography, respectively. Sensitivity to X-ray, gradient, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were compared. All imaging plates were read using the DenOptix scanner with inactive automatic range control (ARC). The scanning resolution was set at 300 dpi. Decay of image information by room light was also compared at inactive and active ARC settings. BAS-SR showed the lowest sensitivity, the lowest gradient, the highest MTF, and the highest NPS. ST-V showed the highest sensitivity, the highest gradient, the lowest MTF, and the lowest NPS. HR-V was the second best for all imaging properties examined in this study. NEQ and DQE of BAS-SR were lowest, and those of ST-V were highest at low spatial frequencies. However, BAS-SR showed relatively constant NEQ and DQE while those of ST-V decreased remarkably at high spatial frequencies. NEQ and DQE of HR-V were the second best at low spatial frequencies and the best at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, we concluded that HR-V has the best imaging properties for dental radiography among three kinds of IPs evaluated in this study. However, the light decay speed of image information with HR-V was remarkably faster than with BAS-SR. To adopt HR-V for a system with which IPs are treated in an ordinary room, the light decay should be taken into account. (+info)
Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems.
The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora (direct) and DentScan DentView (indirect) digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was Surefil followed by Prodigy Condensable, Alert and Solitaire . The correlations between the results of Digora and DentScan DentView were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView . While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora and DentScan DentView tended to approach each other. The Digora system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses. (+info)
A closer look at diagnosis in clinical dental practice: part 6. Emerging technologies for detection and diagnosis of noncaries dental problems.
The final article of this series examines some recent innovations in diagnostic procedures for noncaries dental problems and assesses the potential for new endodontic and periodontal methods to become everyday tools of the dental clinician. (+info)