Comparison of cephalometric analysis using a non-radiographic sonic digitizer (DigiGraph Workstation) with conventional radiography.
Cephalometric analysis conventionally requires radiographic exposure which may not be compatible with the growing concern over radiation hazards. Recently, the Dolphin Workstation Imaging System introduced to the dental profession a non-radiographic system, called the DigiGraph Workstation which may be an alternative to cephalometric radiography. The aims of this study were to compare the validity and reproducibility of cephalometric measurements obtained from the DigiGraph Workstation with conventional cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 30 human dry skulls. Two replicated sets of lateral cephalograms were obtained with steel ball markers placed at the majority of the cephalometric landmarks. Duplicate tracings prepared from each radiograph were digitized to obtain cephalometric measurements using the computer software, Dentofacial Planner. For the DigiGraph Workstation, double sonic digitizations were repeated twice for each skull, on two occasions. Fifteen angular and one linear measurements were obtained from both methods and these findings compared using ANOVA, paired t-tests and F-tests. All, except one, cephalometric measurement showed significant differences between the two methods (P < 0.0001). The DigiGraph Workstation consistently produced higher values in 11 measurements (mean differences +0.5 to +15.7 degrees or mm) and lower values in four measurements (mean differences -0.2 to -3.5 degrees). The standard deviations of the differences between readings of both methods were large (0.4-5.8 degrees or mm). The reproducibility of the DigiGraph Workstation measurements was lower than that of the radiographic measurements. The method error of the DigiGraph Workstation ranged from 7 to 70 per cent, while that of radiographic tracings was less than 2 per cent. It was concluded that measurements obtained with the DigiGraph Workstation should be interpreted with caution. (+info)
A medico-legal review of some current UK guidelines in orthodontics: a personal view.
This article is a critical analysis from a medico-legal perspective of some current authoritative UK clinical guidelines in orthodontics. Two clinical guidelines have been produced by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and four by the British Orthodontic Society. Each guideline is published with the analysis immediately following it. Following recent UK case law (Bolitho v City & Hackney Health Authority, 1997) which allows the courts to choose between two bodies of responsible expert medical opinion where they feel one opinion is not 'logical', it is likely that the UK courts will increasingly turn to authoritative clinical guidelines to assist them in judging whether or not an appropriate standard of care has been achieved in medical negligence cases. It is thus important for clinicians to be aware of the recommendations of such guidelines, and if these are not followed the reasons should be discussed with the patient and recorded in the clinical case notes. This article attempts to highlight aspects of the guidelines that have medico-legal implications. (+info)
Supernumerary teeth--an overview of classification, diagnosis and management.
Most supernumerary teeth are located in the anterior maxillary region. They are classified according to their form and location. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. Detection of supernumerary teeth is best achieved by thorough clinical and radiographic examination. Their management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. This article presents an overview of the clinical problems associated with supernumerary teeth and includes a discussion of the classification, diagnosis and management of this difficult clinical entity. (+info)
Lower lip numbness due to peri-radicular dental infection.
Lower lip numbness has always been a sinister symptom. Much has been written about it being the sole symptom of pathological lesions and metastatic tumours in the mandible. It may also be a symptom of manifestations of certain systemic disorders. A case of lower lip numbness resulting from the compression of the mental nerve by a peri-radicular abscess is presented because of the unusual nature of this spread of infection. (+info)
Understanding the dental need and care during pregnancy: a review.
This paper reviews the oral and dental lesions that are seen during pregnancy. Trimester approach should be adopted in the management of the pregnant patients. A good dental preventive programme is essential. The significance of prescribing fluoride supplements and the use of dental radiography during pregnancy is also briefly reviewed. (+info)
A survey of the delegation of orthodontic tasks and the training of chairside support staff in 22 European countries.
This paper reports on a survey which was undertaken to investigate the delegation of orthodontic tasks and the training of chairside support staff in Europe. Two questionnaires were posted to all members of the EURO-QUAL BIOMED II project together with an explanatory letter. The first dealt with the delegation of nine clinical tasks during orthodontic treatment. The second with the types of chairside assistant employed in each country and the training that they are given. Completed questionnaires, which were subsequently validated, were returned by orthodontists from 22 countries. They indicated that there was no delegation of clinical tasks in six of the 22 countries and delegation of all nine tasks in five countries. The most commonly delegated tasks were taking radiographs (in 14 of the 22 countries) and taking impressions (in 13 of the 22 countries). The least commonly delegated tasks were cementing bands (in five of the 22 countries) and trying on bands (in six of the 22 countries). Seven of the 22 countries provided chairside assistants with training in some clinical orthodontic tasks. Eighteen of the 22 countries provided general training for chairside assistants and offered a qualification for chairside assistants. Four of these 18 countries reported that they only employed qualified chairside assistants. Of the four countries which reported that they did not provide a qualification for chairside assistants, two indicated that they employed chairside assistants with no formal training and two that they did not employ chairside assistants. It was concluded that there were wide variations within Europe as far as the training and employment of chairside assistants, with or without formal qualifications, and in the delegation of clinical orthodontic tasks to auxiliaries was concerned. (+info)
Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part I. Conventional methods.
Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The development of more sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic tools for occlusal surfaces would contribute greatly to more precise planning of preventive and operative therapy. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looks at established diagnostic methods for occlusal surfaces. Conventional visual, tactile and radiographic examinations provide less-than-ideal diagnostic sensitivity. Neither fissure discolouration (black or brown) nor the use of an explorer has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, the combination of careful visual examination with optimal radiographic examination affords better diagnostic performance. The best visual indicators involve precise features associated with the presence of disease, such as opaque fissure demineralization and the presence and extent of localized breakdown of the enamel. For best results, teeth should be clean, thoroughly dry and well illuminated. Part II will examine new and emerging technologies, including the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device, which are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay. (+info)
Potential risk for lead exposure in dental offices.
In December 2000, the Washington State Health Department discovered white powder that was found to be lead oxide in boxes used to store dental intraoral radiograph film. The Washington State Health Department alerted state health departments throughout the United States. Subsequently, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) conducted an investigation of dental offices in the state. This report summarizes the investigation, which indicated that similar storage boxes are used in Wisconsin. The findings indicate that patients are at risk for exposure to a substantial amount of lead during a dental radiograph procedure if the office stores dental film in these boxes. (+info)