Single- and double-strand breaks in solid pBR322 DNA induced by ultrasoft X-rays at photon energies of 388, 435 and 573 eV.
We measured strand breaks of pBR322 plasmid DNA irradiated with ultrasoft X-rays using monochromatic synchrotron radiation as a light source. Three photon energies, 388, 435 and 573 eV, a value below and above the nitrogen K-edge and above the oxygen K-edge, respectively, were chosen for the irradiation experiments as they have an equivalent photon transmittance of the sample. Irradiated DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the numbers of single- and double-strand breaks (ssb and dsb) were determined by measuring the band intensity on the gel after ethidium bromide staining. The action cross-sections for the ssb and dsb slightly increased with the photon energy. The ratio between 388 and 573 eV was about 1.5 for both forms of strand breaks. The absorbed energy required for a strand break was about 60 eV for ssb and 1 keV for dsb, less than one fifth of the values obtained previously in the 2 keV region. On the other hand, the absorbed energies per strand break, as well as the ratio of the action cross-section for the ssb to that for the dsb, were constant regardless of the photon energy used. The K-shell photoabsorption on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the DNA molecule, followed by an Auger cascade, induced DNA strand breaks with a constant efficiency in terms of the absorbed energy. These results indicate that the strand breaks of the DNA molecule in the solid state are mainly caused by the photo- and Auger-electrons and the efficiency of the strand breaks little depends on the atoms ejecting these secondary electrons. (+info)
Retention, excretion and translocation of 239Pu in rats following inhalation of 239PuO2 calcined at 1150 and 400 degrees C.
Wistar rats inhaled 239PuO2 particles prepared by the calcination of 239Pu hydroxide at 1150 and 400 degrees C. Lung retention, fecal and urinary excretion, and translocation of 239Pu were compared between the two calcination temperatures. The clearance of 239Pu from the lungs was significantly faster in the rats exposed to 239PuO2 calcined at 400 degrees C (low-temperature group) than those exposed to 239PuO2 calcined at 1150 degrees C (high-temperature group). Both the fecal excretion of 239Pu and the ratio of fecal excretion to urinary excretion was greater in the low-temperature group than in high-temperature group. The amounts of 239Pu translocated from the lungs to the other organs were very small. Even in the liver, which accumulated the largest amount of 239Pu except for the lungs, only 0.13-0.20% of the initial lung burden was retained 1 year after inhalation. The amount of 239Pu deposited in the liver was greater in the high-temperature group than in the low-temperature group both at 1 month and 1 year after the inhalation. These findings clearly suggest that the lung retention of 239Pu in rats is significantly affected by the calcination temperature of 239PuO2. (+info)
Neutron generator (HIRRAC) and dosimetry study.
Dosimetry studies have been made for neutrons from a neutron generator at Hiroshima University (HIRRAC) which is designed for radiobiological research. Neutrons in an energy range from 0.07 to 2.7 MeV are available for biological irradiations. The produced neutron energies were measured and evaluated by a 3He-gas proportional counter. Energy spread was made certain to be small enough for radiobiological studies. Dose evaluations were performed by two different methods, namely use of tissue equivalent paired ionization chambers and activation of method with indium foils. Moreover, energy deposition spectra in small targets of tissue equivalent materials, so-called lineal energy spectrum, were also measured and are discussed. Specifications for biological irradiation are presented in terms of monoenergetic beam conditions, dose rates and deposited energy spectra. (+info)
Radiobiological studies using synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays.
Ultrasoft X-rays have been extensively used to explore radiobiological mechanisms surrounding cell killing. These studies for the most part have been linked to a small number of X-ray energies. Recently, this field of study has been broadened by the availability of synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays which can be produced at any desired energy. We have taken advantage of the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron to reexamine two fundamental radiobiological questions: Dose RBE vary with different ultrasoft X-ray energies? Dose the fraction of the nuclear volume exposed to equal total X-ray energy modify cell cytotoxicity? The first study focuses on the survival of Chinese hamster V79 and mouse C3H10T1/2 cells irradiated with synchrotron-produced 273 eV and 860 eV ultrasoft X-rays. These two energies, which are available by multilayer monochromatization of the synchrotron output spectrum, exhibit equal attenuation within living cells. Such an isoattenuating energy pair allows the direct examination of how biological effectiveness varies with the energy of the ultrasoft X-rays. In comparing survival results, we find similar biological effectiveness of these two energies for both the C3H10T1/2 and the V79 cells. These results are no consistent with previous findings of increasing RBE with decreasing ultrasoft X-ray energies. In addition, after correcting for mean nuclear based on measurements of cell thickness obtained with confocal microscopy, we find no significant differences in survival between the two ultrasoft X-ray energies and 250 kVp X-rays. These results suggest that RBE does not increase with decreasing energy of ultrasoft X-ray between 860 eV and 273 eV. In a second study we introduced an method which allows partial-volume irradiation of live cells using synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays and micro-fabricated irradiation masks. The masks were made by X-ray lithography at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, and they consist of 1.85-micron-wide stripes of gold 1.35 microns apart plated onto thin silicon nitrate membranes. When placed adjacent to mylar on which live cells are plated, these masks allow cells to be irradiated in a striped pattern with dimensions much smaller than the cell nuclei. Using 1340 eV synchrotron-produced X-rays, we compare the survival of cells subjected to uniform irradiation and cells subjected to partial-volume irradiation. Our results show that, at equal mean dose to the nucleus (i.e. equal total energies deposited), survival is not statistically different for the two treatments over a wide range of doses. Thus, imparting equal energies to smaller intranuclear volumes does not appear to modulate cell killing. (+info)
Basic review of radiation biology and terminology.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to review basic radiation biology and associated terminology to impart a better understanding of the importance of basic concepts of ionizing radiation interactions with living tissue. As health care workers in a field that utilizes ionizing radiation, nuclear medicine technologists are concerned about the possible acute and chronic effects of occupational radiation exposure. Technologists should have a clear understanding of what they are exposed to and how their safety could be affected. Furthermore, technologists should be knowledgeable about radiation effects so that they can adequately assuage possible patient fears about undergoing a nuclear medicine procedure. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with: (a) basic radiation biology concepts; (b) types of interactions of radiation with living tissue, and possible effects from that exposure; (c) theoretical dose-response curves and how they are used in radiation biology; (d) stochastic versus nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure, and what these terms mean in relation to both high- and low-dose radiation exposure; and (e) possible acute and chronic radiation exposure effects. (+info)
Rationales, evidence, and design considerations for fractionated radioimmunotherapy.
Although fractionation can be used in a discrete radiobiologic sense, herein it is generally used in the broader context of administration of multiple, rather than single, doses of radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) or other targeted radionuclide therapies. Fractionation is a strategy for overcoming heterogeneity of monoclonal antibody (MAb) distribution in the tumor and the consequent nonuniformity of tumor radiation doses. Additional advantages of fractionated RIT are the ability to 1) provide patient-specific radionuclide and radiation dosing, 2) control toxicity by titration of the individual patient, 3) reduce toxicity, 4) increase the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for many patients, 5) increase tumor radiation dose and efficacy, and 6) prolong tumor response by permitting treatment over time. However, fractionated RIT has logistic and economic implications. Preclinical and clinical data substantiate the advantages of fractionated RIT, although the radiobiology for conventional external beam radiotherapy does not provide a straightforward rationale for RIT unless fractionation leads to more uniform distribution of radiation dose throughout the tumor. Preclinical data have shown that toxicity and mortality can be reduced while efficacy is increased, thereby providing inferential evidence of greater uniformity of radiation dose. Direct evidence of superior dosimetry and tumor activity distribution has also been found. Clinical data have shown that toxicity can be better controlled and reduced and the MTD extended for many patients. It is clear that fractionated RIT can only fulfill its potential if the effects of critical issues, such as the number and amount of radionuclide doses, the radionuclide physical and effective half-life, and the dose interval, are better characterized. (+info)
Positional effect of cell inactivation on root gravitropism using heavy-ion microbeams.
When primary root apical tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana were irradiated by heavy-ion microbeams with 120 microm diameter, strong inhibition of root elongation and curvature were observed at the root tip. Irradiation of the cells that become the lower part of the root cap after gravistimulation showed strong inhibition of root curvature, whereas irradiation of the cells that become the upper part of the root cap after gravistimulation did not show severe damage in either root curvature or root growth. Further analysis using smaller area microbeams with 40 microm diameter indicated that the greatest inhibition of curvature occurred at the root tip and the next greatest inhibition occurred in the cells in the lower part of the root cap. These results indicate not only that the root tip and columella cells are the most sensitive sites for root gravity, but also that signalling of root gravity would go through the lower part of the cap cells after perception. (+info)
Bystander effect produced by radiolabeled tumor cells in vivo.
The bystander effect, originating from cells irradiated in vitro, describes the biologic response(s) of surrounding cells not directly targeted by a radiation insult. To overcome the limitations of in vitro tissue culture models and determine whether a bystander effect that is initiated by the in vivo decay of a radionuclide can be demonstrated in an animal, the ability of 5-[(125)I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ((125)IUdR)-labeled tumor cells to exert a damaging effect on neighboring unlabeled tumor cells growing s.c. in nude mice has been investigated. When mice are injected with a mixture of human colon LS174T adenocarcinoma cells and LS174T cells prelabeled with lethal doses of DNA-incorporated (125)I, a distinct inhibitory effect on the growth of s.c. tumor (derived from unlabeled cells) is observed. Because (i) the (125)I present within the cells is DNA-bound, (ii) approximately 99% of the electrons emitted by the decaying (125)I atoms have a subcellular range (<0.5 microm), and (iii) the overall radiation dose deposited by radiolabeled cells in the unlabeled cells within the growing tumor is <10 cGy, we conclude that the results obtained are a consequence of a bystander effect that is generated in vivo by factor(s) present within and/or released from the (125)IUdR-labeled cells. These in vivo findings significantly impact the current dogma for assessing the therapeutic potential of internally administered radionuclides. They also call for reevaluation of the approaches currently used for estimating the risks to individuals and populations inadvertently exposed internally to radioactivity as well as to patients undergoing routine diagnostic nuclear medical procedures. (+info)