Preliminary report: symptoms associated with mobile phone use.
Mobile phone use is ubiquitous, although the alleged health effects of low level radio-frequency radiation (RFR) used in transmission are contentious. Following isolated reports of headache-like symptoms arising in some users, a survey has been conducted to characterize the symptoms sometimes associated with mobile phone usage. A notice of interest in cases was placed in a major medical journal and this was publicized by the media. Respondents were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Forty respondents from diverse occupations described unpleasant sensations such as a burning feeling or a dull ache mainly occurring in the temporal, occipital or auricular areas. The symptoms often began minutes after beginning a call, but could come on later during the day. The symptoms usually ceased within an hour after the call, but could last until evening. Symptoms did not occur when using an ordinary handset, and were different from ordinary headaches. There were several reports suggestive of intra-cranial effects. Three respondents reported local symptoms associated with wearing their mobile phone on their belts. There was one cluster of cases in a workplace. Seventy-five per cent of cases were associated with digital mobile phones. Most of the respondents obtained relief by altering their patterns of telephone usage or type of phone. Cranial and other diverse symptoms may arise associated with mobile phone usage. Physicians and users alike should be alert to this. Further work is needed to determine the range of effects, their mechanism and the possible implications for safety limits of RFR. (+info)
A critical review of epidemiologic studies of radiofrequency exposure and human cancers.
This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to radiofrequency (RF) transmissions and various types of human cancer. These studies include three cluster investigations and five studies relating to general populations; all of these studies consider place of residence at the time of cancer diagnosis in regard to proximity to radio or television transmitters. There are also five relevant occupational cohort studies and several case-control studies of particular types of cancer. These studies assessed a large number of possible associations. Several positive associations suggesting an increased risk of some types of cancer in those who may have had greater exposure to RF emissions have been reported. However, the results are inconsistent: there is no type of cancer that has been consistently associated with RF exposures. The epidemiologic evidence falls short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a reasonable conclusion that RF emissions are a likely cause of one or more types of human cancer. The evidence is weak in regard to its inconsistency, the design of the studies, the lack of detail on actual exposures, and the limitations of the studies in their ability to deal with other likely relevant factors. In some studies there may be biases in the data used (+info)
Class differences in the effects of calcium channel blockers in the rat remnant kidney model.
BACKGROUND: Controversy persists as to the existence of class differences between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in their ability to provide renoprotection and as to potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Rats with 5/6 renal ablation were left untreated or received diltiazem, verapamil, or felodipine after the first week, and the relationship between continuous radiotelemetrically measured blood pressure (BP) and glomerulosclerosis (GS) was assessed at seven weeks. Additionally, the effects of these CCBs on renal autoregulation and hypertrophy were examined at three weeks after renal ablation. RESULTS: Although an excellent linear correlation was observed between the average BP levels and GS in all groups (r = 0.75 to 0.84, P < 0.01), significant protection was not achieved with any of the CCBs, but for different reasons. The antihypertensive effects of diltiazem were not sustained beyond the second week. Verapamil significantly reduced the average BP (144 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 181 +/- 8 in untreated rats) but shifted the slope of the relationship between BP and GS (increase in percentage GS/mm Hg increase in average systolic BP) to the left (x intercept 121 vs. 144 mm Hg for untreated rats, P < 0.01) so that GS was not reduced. Felodipine also significantly reduced the average BP (144 +/- 3 mm Hg) and shifted the slope to the left (x intercept 123 mm Hg), but additionally made the slope steeper (2.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.2 in untreated rats). Because of these differing effects on the relationship between BP and GS, the rank order of GS for any given BP elevation was as follows: felodipine > verapamil > diltiazem = untreated. Felodipine, but not verapamil or diltiazem, caused additional impairment of the already impaired renal autoregulation in untreated rats, thereby explaining its adverse effects on GS. By contrast, the adverse effects of verapamil on GS were attributable to the greater amplitude of BP fluctuations that was observed in the verapamil-treated rats such that for any given average BP, these rats were exposed to greater peak pressures as compared with the other groups. None of the CCBs had a significant effect on glomerular hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: These class differences between CCBs in their relative impact on systemic BP profiles, renal autoregulation, and glomerular pressure transmission may have clinically significant implications and may account for the variable glomeruloprotection that has been observed with these agents in both experimental models and in humans. (+info)
Surgical treatment and other regional treatments for colorectal cancer liver metastases.
The liver is the most common site of distant metastasis from colorectal cancer. About one-fourth of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer have no other sites of metastasis and can be treated with regional therapies directed toward their liver tumors. Surgical resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases can result in a 24%-38% five-year survival, but only a minority of patients are candidates for resection. Other regional therapies such as cryosurgery, radiofrequency ablation, and hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy may be offered to patients with unresectable but isolated liver metastases. The efficacy of these treatments is still being determined. For most patients with spread of metastatic colorectal cancer beyond the liver, systemic chemotherapy rather than regional therapy is a more appropriate option. (+info)
Feasibility of in vivo intravascular ultrasound tissue characterization in the detection of early vascular transplant rejection.
BACKGROUND: Unprocessed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) signal analysis has been shown to distinguish different tissue structures more reliably than gray-scale interpretation of conventional ultrasound images. METHODS AND RESULTS: The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) RF signal analysis in an animal model of allograft rejection. Six cynomolgus monkeys underwent transplantation of 3-cm aortic allograft segments distal to the renal arteries from immunologically mismatched donors. IVUS imaging with a 30-MHz system was performed 84 to 105 days after the operation. RF signals were acquired from cross sections of the recipient and the allograft aortas in real time with a digitizer at 500 MHz with 8-bit resolution. Sixty-five cross sections and 68 regions of interest (31 in host aorta and 37 in allograft) were analyzed in the adventitial layer with a total number of 8568 vectors processed. For each region of interest, a weighted-average attenuation was calculated on the basis of the attenuation and length for each individual vector. Histological examination was performed at every cross section imaged by IVUS. When the gray-scale images of conventional IVUS scored by an independent observer were compared, no distinction between adventitia of the native aorta and allograft was possible. Analysis of the average RF backscatter power also showed no significant difference (70.32+/-3.55 versus 70.72+/-3.38 dB). However, the average attenuation of allografts was significantly lower than that of the host aortas (2.64+/-1.38 versus 4.02+/-1.16 dB/mm, P<0.001). Histology demonstrated a marked adventitial inflammatory response in all allografts, with no inflammation observed in the host aortas. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo IVUS tissue characterization can be performed during routine imaging. In this model of transplant vasculopathy, RF attenuation measurements were more sensitive than visual or quantitative gray-scale analysis. (+info)
Impaired recognition memory in monkeys after damage limited to the hippocampal region.
Monkeys with lesions limited to the hippocampal region (the hippocampus proper, the dentate gyrus, and the subiculum) were impaired on two tasks of recognition memory: delayed nonmatching to sample and the visual paired-comparison task. Recognition memory was impaired in five different groups of monkeys, whether the lesions were made by an ischemic procedure, by radio frequency, or by ibotenic acid. The finding that the hippocampal region is essential for normal recognition memory performance is considered in the context of current ideas about the role of the hippocampus in declarative memory. (+info)
Evaluation of ENU-induced gliomas in rats: nomenclature, immunochemistry, and malignancy.
Rats developed mixed gliomas, oligodendrogliomas, and a few astrocytomas in response to transplacental ethylnitrosourea. The neoplastic cell composition of mixed gliomas must be defined; this study required a 20-80% admixture of neoplastic astrocytes and oligodendroglia for the diagnosis of mixed glioma. A battery of immunoantibodies, including Leu-7, S-100, and vimentin, were helpful in classifying rat gliomas, and the histologic features of each tumor type are described. Other brain tumor characteristics that may decide the outcome of carcinogenicity studies include incidence, multiplicity, latency, fatality, size, and malignancy. The size of tumors was determined by measuring their 3-dimensional volumes. Brain tumor volume was found to be highly correlated with malignancy and fatality. Systematic evaluation of the malignancy of brain tumors is an important but often overlooked adjunct method of measuring the effectiveness of a carcinogen. A system to estimate malignancy, one that grades 9 tumor characteristics and weights, each according to clinical outcome, was developed. It was found that mixed gliomas grew larger, had a shorter latency, and were significantly more malignant than were other gliomas. (+info)
Lack of evidence of blood pressure-independent protection by renin-angiotensin system blockade after renal ablation.
BACKGROUND: The superiority of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade in providing renoprotection has been attributed to class-specific blood pressure "(BP)-independent" mechanisms. However, the conventional BP measurement methodology on which such conclusions are based is inherently limited for an accurate assessment of the fluctuating ambient BP profiles. The present studies were undertaken to rigorously examine the relationship of renoprotection to the antihypertensive effects of RAS blockade using chronic BP radiotelemetry in the 5/6 renal ablation model. METHODS: Rats with 5/6 renal ablation received either no treatment, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril at a dose of 25, 50, and 100 mg/L; or the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan at a dose of 50, 120, and 180 mg/L of drinking H2O; and were followed for seven weeks. RESULTS: Glomerulosclerosis (GS) at sacrifice (approximately 7 weeks) demonstrated a close correlation with the average systolic BP in untreated (r = 0.76, N = 20), benazepril-treated (r = 0.80, N = 33), losartan-treated (r = 0.83, N = 32), or all animals combined (r = 0.81, N = 85, P < 0.0001 for all correlations). The slope of the relationship between GS and BP (percentage of increase in GS/mm Hg increase in BP) in untreated rats (0.7 +/- 0.14) was not significantly altered by either benazepril (0.96 +/- 0.13) or losartan (0.60 +/- 0.08), indicating that RAS blockade, by either agent, resulted in renoprotection that was proportionate to the achieved BP reductions. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that RAS blockade provides renoprotection in the rat remnant kidney model of progressive GS, primarily through "BP-dependent" and not "BP-independent" mechanisms. (+info)