Radiation induced endothelial cell retraction in vitro: correlation with acute pulmonary edema.
We determined the effects of low dose radiation (<200 cGy) on the cell-cell integrity of confluent monolayers of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC). We observed dose- and time-dependent reversible radiation induced injuries to PMEC monolayers characterized by retraction (loss of cell-cell contact) mediated by cytoskeletal F-actin reorganization. Radiation induced reorganization of F-actin microfilament stress fibers was observed > or =30 minutes post irradiation and correlated positively with loss of cell-cell integrity. Cells of irradiated monolayers recovered to form contact inhibited monolayers > or =24 hours post irradiation; concomitantly, the depolymerized microfilaments organized to their pre-irradiated state as microfilament stress fibers arrayed parallel to the boundaries of adjacent contact-inhibited cells. Previous studies by other investigators have measured slight but significant increases in mouse lung wet weight >1 day post thoracic or whole body radiation (> or =500 cGy). Little or no data is available concerning time intervals <1 day post irradiation, possibly because of the presumption that edema is mediated, at least in part, by endothelial cell death or irreversible loss of barrier permeability functions which may only arise 1 day post irradiation. However, our in vitro data suggest that loss of endothelial barrier function may occur rapidly and at low dose levels (< or =200 cGy). Therefore, we determined radiation effects on lung wet weight and observed significant increases in wet weight (standardized per dry weight or per mouse weight) in < or =5 hours post thoracic exposure to 50 200 cGy x-radiation. We suggest that a single fraction of radiation even at low dose levels used in radiotherapy, may induce pulmonary edema by a reversible loss of endothelial cell-cell integrity and permeability barrier function. (+info)
Protective effects of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin against X-ray radiation injury in mice.
The protective effects of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin (NH4) against radiation injury in mice were studied. (C57BL/6xA/J)F1 (B6A) mice received a single whole-body irradiation dose of 200, 400, 700 or 800 cGy of X-rays. NH4 (30 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected intraperitoneally into irradiated mice 10 min before and after the irradiation and again after 6 h. All mice which received the 800 cGy radiation+PBS died between 8 and 11 days after the treatment. In contrast, those which also received NH4 demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival time and 40% lived more than 5 months. Total numbers of thymocytes and spleen cells on day 5 post-irradiation were dramatically reduced in line with the radiation dose. The survival was significantly enhanced by NH4 in treated mice. The proliferation of spleen cells in mice stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also greater in NH4 treated mice. The immune response of survivors 5 months after 800 cGy+NH4 treatments, against Con A, LPS, allogenic mouse, and sheep red blood cells had essentially recovered to the levels of normal mice. These results indicate that NH4 had an important role in modifying radiation injury. (+info)
Increased susceptibility to constant light in nr and pcd mice with inherited retinal degenerations.
PURPOSE: To determine whether the degenerating photoreceptors in nervous (nr/nr) and Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd/pcd) mutant mice are more susceptible to the damaging effects of constant light than those in age-matched normal mice. METHODS: Beginning at two ages for each mutant, albino nr/nr and pcd/pcd mice were placed into constant fluorescent light at an illuminance of 115 foot-candles to 130 foot-candles for a period of 1 week. Age-matched (usually littermate) normal (+/-) mice were exposed at the same time. The degree of photoreceptor cell loss was quantified histologically by obtaining a mean outer nuclear layer thickness for each animal. The light-exposed mice were compared with age-matched mutant and normal mice that were maintained in cyclic light. RESULTS: The homozygous mutants at each age showed a significantly greater loss of photoreceptor cells caused by constant light exposure than did the normal +/- mice in the same period of light exposure. The nr/nr and pcd/pcd mutants lost two to three times the number of photoreceptor cells than did the +/- mice during the constant light exposure. CONCLUSIONS: It has long been thought that excessive light may be harmful to patients with inherited or age-related photoreceptor degenerations. The present data add to other experimental evidence suggesting that photoreceptors already undergoing inherited or other forms of degeneration may be particularly susceptible to the damaging effects of excessive light. (+info)
Chronic toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in F344/N rats.
A 2-yr whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity and possible oncogenicity of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in rats. Groups of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats were exposed continuously to pure, linearly polarized, transient-free 60 Hz magnetic fields at flux densities of 0 Gauss (G) (sham control), 20 milligauss (mG), 2 G, and 10 G; an additional group of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats received intermittent (1 hr on/1 hr off) exposure to 10 G fields. Mortality patterns, body weight gains throughout the study, and the total incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors in all groups exposed to magnetic fields were similar to those found in sex-matched sham controls. Statistically significant increases in the combined incidence of C-cell adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid were seen in male rats chronically exposed to 20 mG and 2 G magnetic fields. These increases were not seen in male rats exposed continuously or intermittently to 10 G fields or in female rats at any magnetic field exposure level. No increases in the incidence of neoplasms, which have been identified in epidemiology studies as possible targets of magnetic field action (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer), were found in any group exposed to magnetic fields. There was a decrease in leukemia in male rats exposed to 10 G intermittent fields. The occurrence of C-cell tumors at the 2 lower field intensities in male rats is interpreted as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity; data from female rats provides no evidence of carcinogenicity in that sex. These data, when considered as a whole, are interpreted as indicating that chronic exposure to pure linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields has little or no effect on cancer development in the F344/N rat. (+info)
Chronic toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in B6C3F1 mice.
A 2-yr whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity and possible oncogenicity of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in mice. Groups of 100 male and 100 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to pure, linearly polarized, transient-free 60 Hz magnetic fields at flux densities of 0 Gauss (G) (sham control), 20 milligauss (mG), 2 G, and 10 G; an additional group of 100 male and 100 female B6C3F1 mice received intermittent (1 hr on/1 hr off) exposure to 10 G fields. A small but statistically significant increase in mortality was observed in male mice exposed continuously to 10 G fields; mortality patterns in all other groups of mice exposed to magnetic fields were comparable to those found in sex-matched sham controls. Body weight gains and the total incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors were similar in all groups. Magnetic field exposure did not increase the incidence of neoplasia in any organ, including those sites (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer) that have been identified in epidemiology studies as possible targets of magnetic field action. A statistically significant decrease in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was observed in female mice exposed continuously to 10 G fields, and statistically significant decreases in the incidence of lung tumors were seen in both sexes exposed continuously to 2 G fields. These data do not support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to pure, linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields is a significant risk factor for neoplastic development in mice. (+info)
Keratinocyte growth factor separates graft-versus-leukemia effects from graft-versus-host disease.
The major obstacles to successful outcome after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia remain graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and leukemic relapse. Improved survival after BMT therefore requires more effective GVHD prophylaxis that does not impair graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. We studied the administration of human recombinant keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in a well- characterized murine BMT model for its effects on GVHD. KGF administration from day -3 to +7 significantly reduced GVHD mortality and the severity of GVHD in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, reducing serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels, but preserving donor T-cell responses (cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL] activity, proliferation, and interleukin [IL]-2 production) to host antigens. When mice received lethal doses of P815 leukemia cells at the time of BMT, KGF treatment significantly decreased acute GVHD compared with control-treated allogeneic mice and resulted in a significantly improved leukemia-free survival (42% v 4%, P <.001). KGF administration thus offers a novel approach to the separation of GVL effects from GVHD. (+info)
Defective immune response and severe skin damage following UVB irradiation in interleukin-6-deficient mice.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, is induced in the acute-phase reaction following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of humans and mice. Using IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/-) mice, we investigated the role of IL-6 in immunosuppression and inflammatory responses caused by UVB (280-320 nm) radiation. The IL-6-/- mice had a defective contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in response to the sensitizers 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone. The injection of recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) into these mice resulted in a marked recovery of the CHS. Serum IL-6 was significantly elevated by UV irradiation of wild-type B6 J/129Sv (IL-6+/+) mice but was not detectable in IL-6-/- mice. Interestingly, there was no induction of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) by UV irradiation of IL-6-/- mice, whereas UV exposure caused a significant increase in serum IL-10 levels in IL-6+/+ mice. Injection of rIL-6 into IL-6-/- mice increased IL-10 to levels similar to those of IL-6+/+ mice. Being different from IL-6+/+ mice, no epidermal proliferation was found at 48 hr in the IL-6-/- mice, but delayed cell proliferation was observed at 72 hr after UV exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the epidermis was capable of synthesizing IL-6 at 72 hr after UV irradiation of IL-6+/+ mice. In addition, the IL-6-positive cells appeared to be Langerhans' cells, which were detected with dendritic cell-reactive S-100 antibody. The present study strongly suggests that IL-6 may play a crucial role in the alteration of cutaneous immune responses following UV exposure, and provides evidence that IL-6 is a potent inducer of IL-10. Furthermore, IL-6 production induced by UV radiation appears to be an important early signal for repair of UV-caused skin damage. (+info)
Different effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or bacterial infection on bone-marrow cells of cyclophosphamide-treated or irradiated mice.
In the present study, the effect of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on cellular composition of the bone marrow and the number of circulating leucocytes of granulocytopenic mice, whether or not infected with Staphylococcus aureus, was assessed. With two monoclonal antibodies, six morphologically distinct cell populations in the bone marrow could be characterised and quantitated by two-dimensional flow cytometry. Granulocytopenia was induced by cyclophosphamide or sublethal irradiation. Cyclophosphamide predominantly affected the later stages of dividing cells in the bone marrow resulting in a decrease in number of granulocytic cells, monocytic cells, lymphoid cells and myeloid blasts. G-CSF administration to cyclophosphamide-treated mice increased the number of early blasts, myeloid blasts and granulocytic cells in the bone marrow, which indicates that this growth factor stimulates the proliferation of these cells in the bone marrow. During infection in cyclophosphamide-treated mice the number of myeloid blasts increased. However, when an infection was induced in cyclophosphamide and G-CSF-treated mice, the proliferation of bone-marrow cells was not changed compared to that in noninfected similarly treated mice. Sublethal irradiation affected all bone-marrow cell populations, including the early blasts. G-CSF-treatment of irradiated mice increased only the number of myeloid blasts slightly, whereas an infection in irradiated mice, whether or not treated with G-CSF, did not affect the number of bone-marrow cells. Together, these studies demonstrated that irradiation affects the early blasts and myeloid blasts in the bone marrow more severely than treatment with cyclophosphamide. Irradiation probably depletes the bone marrow from G-CSF-responsive cells, while cyclophosphamide spared G-CSF responsive cells, thus enabling the enhanced G-CSF-mediated recovery after cyclophosphamide treatment. Only in these mice, bone marrow recovery is followed by a strong mobilisation of mature granulocytes and their band forms from the bone marrow into the circulation during a bacterial infection. (+info)