Human rabies prevention--United States, 1999. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
These revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices update the previous recommendations on rabies prevention (MMWR 1991;40[No.RR-3]:1-14) to reflect the current status of rabies and antirabies biologics in the United States. This report includes new information about a human rabies vaccine approved for U.S. use in 1997, recommendations regarding exposure to bats, recommendations regarding an observation period for domestic ferrets, and changes in the local administration of rabies immune globulin. (+info)
Compendium of Animal Rabies Control, 1999. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.
The purpose of this Compendium is to provide information on rabies control to veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies control. These recommendations serve as the basis for animal rabies-control programs throughout the United States and facilitate standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, thereby contributing to an effective national rabies-control program. This document is reviewed annually and revised as necessary. Immunization procedure recommendations are contained in Part I; all animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II; Part III details the principles of rabies control. (+info)
Human rabies postexposure prophylaxis during a raccoon rabies epizootic in New York, 1993 and 1994.
We describe the epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in four upstate New York counties during the 1st and 2nd year of a raccoon rabies epizootic. We obtained data from records of 1,173 persons whose rabies PEP was reported to local health departments in 1993 and 1994. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties, in summer, and in patients 10 to 14 and 35 to 44 years of age. PEP given after bites was primarily associated with unvaccinated dogs and cats, but most (70%) was not attributable to bites. Although pet vaccination and stray animal control, which target direct exposure, remain the cornerstones of human rabies prevention, the risk for rabies by the nonbite route (e. g., raccoon saliva on pet dogs' and cats' fur) should also be considered. (+info)
Australian bat lyssavirus infection in a captive juvenile black flying fox.
The newly emerging Australian bat lyssavirus causes rabieslike disease in bats and humans. A captive juvenile black flying fox exhibited progressive neurologic signs, including sudden aggression, vocalization, dysphagia, and paresis over 9 days and then died. At necropsy, lyssavirus infection was diagnosed by fluorescent antibody test, immunoperoxidase staining, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. Eight human contacts received postexposure vaccination. (+info)
Induction of genital immunity by DNA priming and intranasal booster immunization with a replication-defective adenoviral recombinant.
Mice immunized through different routes such as i.m., intradermally, or intratracheally with a DNA vaccine to rabies virus developed high titers of serum Ab but only borderline levels of mucosal Abs determined from vaginal secretions. DNA vaccines given by either route enhanced vaginal IgA and IgG2a secretion upon a subsequent intranasal booster immunization with an E1-deleted adenoviral recombinant expressing the same Ag of rabies virus. DNA vaccine priming reduced the Ab response to the adenoviral Ags and counterbalanced the impaired B cell response to the rabies virus Ag expressed by the adenoviral recombinant in mice preimmune to adenovirus. The vaginal B cell response could further be enhanced by using the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 or IL-5 as genetic adjuvants concomitantly with the DNA vaccine before intranasal booster immunization with the recombinant vaccine. (+info)
Comparison of visual microscopic and computer-automated fluorescence detection of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies.
The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVNT) are both diagnostic tests for determining levels of rabies neutralizing antibodies. An automated method for determining fluorescence has been implemented to reduce the work time required for fluorescent visual microscopic observations. The automated method offers several advantages over conventional visual observation, such as the ability to rapidly test many samples. The antibody titers obtained with automated techniques were similar to those obtained with both the RFFIT (n = 165, r = 0.93, P < 0.001) and the FAVNT (n = 52, r = 0.99, P < 0.001). (+info)
A new Vero cell rabies vaccine: results of a comparative trial with human diploid cell rabies vaccine in children.
We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a chromatographically purified rabies vaccine (CPRV) compared with human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV) after pre-exposure immunizations (both primary and booster). Intramuscular doses of either 0.5 mL of CPRV or 1.0 mL of HDCV were given to 400 schoolchildren on days 0, 7, 28, and 365 (booster). Adequate titers of antibody (> or = 0.15 IU/mL, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) were observed in serum samples from all children 14 days after primary immunization with CPRV and HDCV; the antibodies persisted in all but one child up until 1 year. Fourteen days after the primary immunization series (day 42) and 7 days after booster immunization (day 372), all children had antibody titers of > or = 0.5 IU/mL. Local and systemic reactions after primary and booster immunizations occurred significantly less frequently in the CPRV group. A severe allergic reaction (angioedema) was reported in only one child after booster immunization with HDCV. CPRV has adequate immunogenicity for primary and booster pre-exposure immunizations in children and has a better safety profile than does HDCV. (+info)
Antibody response after a four-site intradermal booster vaccination with cell-culture rabies vaccine.
The current World Health Organization recommendation for booster vaccination of previously immunized individuals with potential exposure to rabies is two doses of vaccine intramuscularly or intradermally on days 0 and 3. We report responses to two types of postexposure treatment of healthy individuals who had received preexposure rabies vaccination 1 year previously. Group A individuals received four intradermal doses (one-fifth of the diluent volume of vaccine per dose) on day 0, and group B individuals received two intramuscular doses on days 0 and 3. Immunogenicity of the two booster regimens was assessed by titrating the amount of neutralizing antibody (Nab). We found that the booster doses of vaccine produced remarkable responses in all subjects. Nab titers of > or = 0.5 IU/mL (acceptable antibody level for protection against rabies) were detected in all subjects on day 14, and they were shown to be consistently high 1 year after the booster vaccination. We also found that the Nab titers for group A were significantly higher (two- to eightfold) than those for group B on days 5, 14, 150, and 360 after the initial booster vaccination (P < .05). Our study shows that the four-site intradermal booster regimen with use of one-fifth of the diluent volume of cell-culture rabies vaccine on day 0 is associated with a significantly higher antibody response than is the conventional booster regimen for subsequent postexposure rabies treatment of individuals who have received preexposure rabies vaccination with cell-culture rabies vaccine 1 year previously. (+info)