Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome.
The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly . Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)  . Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome. (+info)
The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis.
Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion. (+info)
Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector domain of rabphilin-3A.
The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are sensitive to the nucleotide-binding state of Rab3A. The second interface consists of a deep pocket in Rab3A that interacts with a SGAWFF structural element of rabphilin-3A. Sequence and structure analysis, and biochemical data suggest that this pocket, or Rab complementarity-determining region (RabCDR), establishes a specific interaction between each Rab protein and its effectors. RabCDRs could be major determinants of effector specificity during vesicle trafficking and fusion. (+info)
Identification of a putative effector protein for rab11 that participates in transferrin recycling.
We have identified and cloned the cDNA for a 912-aa protein, rab11BP, that interacts with the GTP-containing active form of rab11, a GTP-binding protein that plays a critical role in receptor recycling. Although rab11BP is primarily cytosolic, a significant fraction colocalizes with rab11 in endosomal membranes of both the sorting and recycling subcompartments. In vitro binding of rab11 to native rab11BP requires partial denaturation of the latter to expose an internal binding site located between residues 334 and 504 that is apparently masked by the C-terminal portion of the protein, which includes six repeats known as WD40 domains. Within the cell, rab11BP must undergo a conformational change in which the rab11-binding site becomes exposed, because when coexpressed with rab11 in transfected cells the two proteins formed abundant complexes in association with membranes. Furthermore, although overexpression of rab11BP did not affect transferrin recycling, overexpression of a truncated form of the protein, rab11BP(1-504), that includes the rab11-binding site but lacks the WD40 domains inhibited recycling as strongly as does a dominant negative rab11 mutant protein that does not bind GTP. Strikingly, the inhibition caused by the truncated rab11BP was prevented completely when the cells also expressed a C-terminally deleted, nonprenylatable form of rab11 that, by itself, has no effect on recycling. We propose that rab11BP is an effector for rab11, whose association with this GTP-binding protein is dependent on the action of another membrane-associated factor that promotes the unmasking of the rab11-binding site in rab11BP. (+info)
An arrested late endosome-lysosome intermediate aggregate observed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant isolated by novel three-step screening.
Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the post-uptake degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in lysosomes were selected from mutagenized cells by novel three-step screening. First, in the presence of LDL, clones sensitive to an inhibitor of the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, were isolated. Second, from the selected clones, those lacking in the degradation of a constituent of a fluorescent LDL were qualitatively screened by microscopy. Third, the clones were further screened by previously established quantitative analytical flow cytometry that detects the early-phase disintegration of LDL by lysosomal acid hydrolases. One of the isolated mutant clones, LEX1 (Lysosome-Endosome X 1), was a recessive mutant, and exhibited a specific disorder in the late endocytic pathway. LEX1 cells showed an unusual perinuclear aggregate of vesicles, heterogeneously positive for lysosomal glycoprotein-B/cathepsin D and rab7, yet negative for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The aggregate was formed around the microtubule organizing center, and was disrupted by nocodazole treatment. Internalized octadecyl rhodamine B-labeled LDL (R18-LDL) was accumulated in the perinuclear rab7-positive vesicles. In a Percoll density gradient, neither internalized R18-LDL nor internalized horseradish peroxidase was efficiently chased into heavy lysosomal fractions positive for beta-hexosaminidase. LEX1 cells showed differences in the activity and subcellular distribution of lysosomal enzymes. These characteristics of LEX1 cells are consistent with the ideas that the perinuclear vesicle aggregate is an arrested intermediate of direct fusion or divergence between lysosomes and rab7-positive, cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor-negative late endosomes, and that equilibrium between the lysosomes and the late endosomes is shifted towards the late endosomes in LEX1 cells. Such fusion or divergence between the late endosomes and the lysosomes would determine an appropriate equilibrium between them, and might thereby play an important role for proper lysosomal digestive functions. LEX1 mutant cells would be helpful for the dissection of the as yet unrevealed details of the late endocytic membrane dynamics and for the identification of factors involved in the process arrested by the mutation. (+info)
Primary structure and biochemical characterization of yeast GTPase-activating proteins with substrate preference for the transport GTPase Ypt7p.
Small GTPases of the Ypt/Rab family are regulators of vesicular protein trafficking in exo-and endocytosis. GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) play an important role as down regulators of GTPases. We here report the molecular cloning of a novel GAP-encoding gene (GYP7, for GAP for Ypt7) by high expression from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic library. The GYP7 gene encodes a hydrophilic protein with a molecular mass of 87 kDa. Comparison of its primary sequence with that of the three other known GAPs for transport GTPases, the yeast Gyp6 and Gyp1 proteins and the Rab3A-GAP from rat brain, shows similarity between the yeast GAPs only. Like GYP6 and GYP1, GYP7 is not essential for yeast cell viability. Gyp7p was able to most effectively accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of Ypt7p. It was also active, but to a lesser extent, on Ypt31p, Ypt32p and Ypt1p. Ypt6p, Sec4p and the human H-Ras protein did not serve as substrates. We also report the identification and cloning of a gene from the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica that encodes a protein whose primary structure and biochemical activity are significantly related to those of Gyp7p from baker's yeast. (+info)
The receptor recycling pathway contains two distinct populations of early endosomes with different sorting functions.
Receptor recycling involves two endosome populations, peripheral early endosomes and perinuclear recycling endosomes. In polarized epithelial cells, either or both populations must be able to sort apical from basolateral proteins, returning each to its appropriate plasma membrane domain. However, neither the roles of early versus recycling endosomes in polarity nor their relationship to each other has been quantitatively evaluated. Using a combined morphological, biochemical, and kinetic approach, we found these two endosome populations to represent physically and functionally distinct compartments. Early and recycling endosomes were resolved on Optiprep gradients and shown to be differentially associated with rab4, rab11, and transferrin receptor; rab4 was enriched on early endosomes and at least partially depleted from recycling endosomes, with the opposite being true for rab11 and transferrin receptor. The two populations were also pharmacologically distinct, with AlF4 selectively blocking export of transferrin receptor from recycling endosomes to the basolateral plasma membrane. We applied these observations to a detailed kinetic analysis of transferrin and dimeric IgA recycling and transcytosis. The data from these experiments permitted the construction of a testable, mathematical model which enabled a dissection of the roles of early and recycling endosomes in polarized receptor transport. Contrary to expectations, the majority (>65%) of recycling to the basolateral surface is likely to occur from early endosomes, but with relatively little sorting of apical from basolateral proteins. Instead, more complete segregation of basolateral receptors from receptors intended for transcytosis occurred upon delivery to recycling endosomes. (+info)
Characterization of GAPCenA, a GTPase activating protein for Rab6, part of which associates with the centrosome.
The Rab6 GTPase regulates intracellular transport at the level of the Golgi apparatus, probably in a retrograde direction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel human Rab6-interacting protein named human GAPCenA (for 'GAP and centrosome-associated'). Primary sequence analysis indicates that GAPCenA displays similarities, within a central 200 amino acids domain, to both the yeast Rab GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and to the spindle checkpoint proteins Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bub2p and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc16p. We demonstrate that GAPCenA is indeed a GAP, specifically active in vitro on Rab6 and, to a lesser extent, on Rab4 and Rab2 proteins. Immunofluorescence and cell fractionation experiments showed that GAPCenA is mainly cytosolic but that a minor pool is associated with the centrosome. Moreover, GAPCenA was found to form complexes with cytosolic gamma-tubulin and to play a role in microtubule nucleation. Therefore, GAPCenA may be involved in the coordination of microtubule and Golgi dynamics during the cell cycle. (+info)