Functional importance and local environments of the cysteines in the tetracycline resistance protein encoded by plasmid pBR322.
The properties of the cysteines in the pBR322-encoded tetracycline resistance protein have been examined. Cysteines are important but not essential for tetracycline transport activity. None of the cysteines reacted with biotin maleimide, suggesting that they are shielded from the aqueous phase or reside in a negatively charged local environment. (+info)
Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX).
The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types. (+info)
An explanation for the apparent host specificity of Pseudomonas plasmid R91 expression.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 9169 has been reported to contain a plasmid that expresses resistance to carbenicillin (Cb), kanamycin (Km), and tetracycline (Tc) in Escherichia coli but resistance only to Cb in certain Pseudomonas recipients. The triply resistant plasmid in E. coli belonged to incompatibility (Inc) group P or P-1, whereas the singly resistant plasmid in P. aeruginosa was compatible with IncP-1 plasmids and other plasmids of established Inc specificity but incompatible with plasmid pSR1 that is here used to define a new Pseudomonas Inc group P-10. Additional physical and genetic studies showed that strain 9169 contained not one but two plasmids: IncP-1 plasmid R91a, determining the Cb Km Tc phenotype, and IncP-10 plasmid R91, determining Cb that differed in molecular weight and in EcoRI and BamHI restriction endonuclease recognition sites. Plasmid multiplicity rather than host effects on plasmid gene expression can account for differences in the phenotype of strain 9169 transconjugants to E. coli and P. aeruginosa. (+info)
R-factor inheritance and plasmid content in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Eighteen strains of alginate-producing mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated with respect to plasmid content and the ability to maintain well-characterized R plasmids. The spontaneous loss of alginate production in these strains varied from 0.01 to 0.7% and was not significantly increased by plasmid curing regimens. Examination of cleared lysates of these strains and their isogenic nonmucoid derivatives by agarose gel electrophoresis failed to reveal plasmid DNA. R-plasmid (P-incompatibility-group) transfer to mucoid P. aeruginosa was unaffected by the presence of the alginate capsule. Maintenance and expression of such plasmids in the mucoid strains were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by verification of plasmid-linked drug resistance and pilus-specific bacteriophage sensitivity. These studies demonstrate that alginate production does not appear to be plasmid linked and that mucoid P. aeruginosa are capable of receiving and donating certain drug resistance plasmids. Since some of the plasmids used here have been shown to mobilize chromosomal DNA, strains constructed in this study should afford the means for exploring the genetic basis of the mucoid phenotype. (+info)
Immunochemical studies on R mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3.
Three mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, namely: YeO3-R1, YeO3-RfbR7 and YeO3-c-trs8-R were classified on the basis of sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) profile of isolated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as belonging to the Ra- (the first) and the Rc-type (the other two mutants). Methylation analysis, in addition to 13C and 1H NMR studies of purified core oligosaccharides revealed structures similar to those established previously for the full core of Y. enterocolitica O:3 in the case of the Ra mutant, and identical to that reported for the Rc mutant Ye75R, in the case of the two other mutants. The O-specific sugar, 6d-L-altrose, which forms a homopolymeric O-chain, was present in small amounts in all three LPS preparations, as well as in the core oligosaccha ride preparations along with the Ra and the Rc sugars, characteristic of the Y. enterocolitica O:3 core. This result is in line with genetic data, indicating that it is the inner core region which is the receptor for the O-specific chain in Y. enterocolitica O:3. This region seems likewise to be the anchoring region for the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), as shown by SDS/PAGE/Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies against ECA. In addition, we also demonstrated that the Ye75R mutant Rc and its parental strain Ye75S, both were ECA-immunogenic strains. So far, ECA-immunogenic strains, i.e. those with LPS-linked ECA, were only identified in E. coli mutants of the R1, R4 and K-12 serotype. (+info)
Comparison of proteins involved in pilus synthesis and mating pair stabilization from the related plasmids F and R100-1: insights into the mechanism of conjugation.
F and R100-1 are closely related, derepressed, conjugative plasmids from the IncFI and IncFII incompatibility groups, respectively. Heteroduplex mapping and genetic analyses have revealed that the transfer regions are extremely similar between the two plasmids. Plasmid specificity can occur at the level of relaxosome formation, regulation, and surface exclusion between the two transfer systems. There are also differences in pilus serology, pilus-specific phage sensitivity, and requirements for OmpA and lipopolysaccharide components in the recipient cell. These phenotypic differences were exploited in this study to yield new information about the mechanism of pilus synthesis, mating pair stabilization, and surface and/or entry exclusion, which are collectively involved in mating pair formation (Mpf). The sequence of the remainder of the transfer region of R100-1 (trbA to traS) has been completed, and the complete sequence is compared to that of F. The differences between the two transfer regions include insertions and deletions, gene duplications, and mosaicism within genes, although the genes essential for Mpf are conserved in both plasmids. F+ cells carrying defined mutations in each of the Mpf genes were complemented with the homologous genes from R100-1. Our results indicate that the specificity in recipient cell recognition and entry exclusion are mediated by TraN and TraG, respectively, and not by the pilus. (+info)
Molecular epidemiological study on tetracycline resistance R plasmids in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Restriction patterns obtained with EcoRI and Southern hybridization were used for the differentiation of tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) R plasmids in enterobaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 isolates from a mass outbreak at a kindergarten in Obihiro-City, Hokkaido, Japan, 1996. Two kinds of Tet(r) R plasmids of 50 and 95 kb were detected. The 50-kb plasmids were identical to each other, while the 93-kb plasmids were of three types that were very similar to each other. The tet genes of both 50- and 95-kb R plasmids were 100% identical to the tet gene of pSC101 and all plasmids hybridized to a probe for tet. Because food-origin O157 strains were sensitive to tetracycline, we concluded that such Tet(r) R-plasmids might transfer to drug-sensitive O157 strains in the infected individuals. (+info)
Propagation of TEM- and PSE-type beta-lactamases among amoxicillin-resistant Salmonella spp. isolated in France.
A survey conducted between 1987 and 1994 at the University Hospital of Besancon, France, demonstrated a dramatic increase (from 0 to 42. 5%) in the prevalence of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella spp. Of the 96 resistant isolates collected during this period (including 77 Typhimurium), 54 were found to produce TEM-1 beta-lactamase, 40 produced PSE-1 (equivalent to CARB-2), one produced PSE-1 plus TEM-2, and one produced OXA-1 in isoelectric focusing and DNA hybridization experiments. Plasmids coding for these beta-lactamases were further characterized by (i) profile analysis, (ii) restriction fragmentation pattern analysis, (iii) hybridization with an spvCD-orfE virulence probe, and (iv) replicon typing. In addition, isolates of S. typhimurium were genotypically compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-macrorestricted chromosomal DNA. Altogether, these methods showed that 40 of the 41 PSE-1 producers were actually the progeny of a single epidemic S. typhimurium strain lysotype DT104. Isolates of that strain were found to harbor RepFIC virulence plasmids with somewhat different restriction profiles, but which all carried the bla(PSE-1) gene. Of these virulence/resistance plasmids, 15 were transmissible to Escherichia coli. TEM-1-producing S. typhimurium displayed much greater genotypic and plasmidic diversities, suggesting the acquisition of the bla(TEM-1) gene from multiple bacterial sources by individual strains. In agreement with this, 32 of the 35 S. typhimurium plasmids encoding TEM-1 were found to be conjugative. These data show that development of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella, especially in serovar Typhimurium, results from both gene transfers and strain dissemination. (+info)