Location score and haplotype analyses of the locus for autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, in chromosome region 13q11.
Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a clinically homogeneous form of early-onset familial spastic ataxia with prominent myelinated retinal nerve fibers. More than 300 patients have been identified, and most of their families originated in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of northeastern Quebec, where the carrier prevalence has been estimated to be 1/22. Consistent with the hypothesis of a founder effect, we observed excess shared homozygosity at 13q11, among patients in a genomewide scan of 12 families. Analysis of 19 pedigrees demonstrated very tight linkage between the ARSACS locus and an intragenic polymorphism of the gamma-sarcoglycan (SGCG) gene, but genomic DNA sequence analysis of all eight exons of SGCG revealed no disease-causing mutation. On the basis of haplotypes composed of seven marker loci that spanned 11.1 cM, the most likely position of the ARSACS locus was 0.42 cM distal to the SGCG polymorphism. Two groups of ARSACS-associated haplotypes were identified: a large group that carries a common SGCG allele and a small group that carries a rare SGCG allele. The haplotype groups do not appear to be closely related. Therefore, although chromosomes within each haplotype group may harbor a single ARSACS mutation identical by descent, the two mutations could have independent origins. (+info)
Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food. (+info)
Tell everything you know about birth control pills.
Comprehensive computerized diabetes registry. Serving the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (eastern James Bay).
PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Diabetes is rapidly evolving as a major health concern in the Cree population of eastern James Bay (Eeyou Istchee). The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay (CBHSSJB) diabetes registry was the initial phase in the development of a comprehensive program for diabetes in this region. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry was developed to provide a framework to track the prevalence of diabetes and the progression of diabetic complications. The database will also identify patients not receiving appropriate clinical and laboratory screening for diabetic complications, and will provide standardized clinical flow sheets for routine patient management. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry uses a system of paper registration forms and clinical flow sheets kept in the nine community clinics. Information from these sheets is entered into a computer database annually. The flow sheets serve as a guideline for appropriate management of patients with diabetes, and provide a one-page summary of relevant clinical and laboratory information. CONCLUSIONS: A diabetes registry is vital to follow the progression of diabetes and diabetic complications in the region served by the CBHSSJB. The registry system incorporates both a means for regional epidemiologic monitoring of diabetes mellitus and clinical tools for managing patients with the disease. (+info)
Three cases of canine leptospirosis in Quebec.
Three dogs from different locations with acute renal failure were hospitalized in autumn 1996 and 1997. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was detected by the microscopic agglutination test. All dogs recovered after antibiotic treatment. The importance of the development of vaccines adapted to emerging serovars in dogs should be addressed. (+info)
Nutrient intake of food bank users is related to frequency of food bank use, household size, smoking, education and country of birth.
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a random sample of food bank users. Nutrient intakes of adult female and male food bank users in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, were monitored week-by-week over a month by dietitian-administered 24-h recall interviews. A total of 428 participants from a stratified random sample of 57 urban area food banks completed all four interviews. Mean energy intake, as an indicator of diet quantity, was similar to other adult populations (10.2 +/- 4.8 and 7.9 +/- 3.6 MJ for men and women, respectively, age 18-49 y) and not related to sociodemographic variables except the expected biological variation of age and sex. Macronutrient intake was stable throughout the month. Overall median intakes of calcium, vitamin A, and zinc were below recommended levels for all age and sex groups. Intakes of several micronutrients were related to frequency of food bank use, household size, smoking, education, and country of birth. High nutrient intake variability characterized these adult food bank users. (+info)
Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among James Bay Cree women in northern Quebec.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus has been reported to vary widely in aboriginal populations. Most of the data have come from the United States. To help determine the extent of gestational diabetes in Canada's aboriginal population, the authors assessed the prevalence in a population of Cree women in northern Quebec. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. Information was obtained from patient charts on pregnancies between January 1995 and December 1996 among women residing in 9 Cree communities in the eastern James Bay region of northern Quebec. Women who were not Cree, had pre-existing diabetes, had spontaneous abortion or were receiving glucocorticoid treatment were excluded. RESULTS: Data on 654 pregnancies that met the inclusion criteria were available. Results of the screening oral glucose challenge test were available for 579 of the pregnancies; the remaining 75 were excluded. The mean gestational age at screening was 28.3 (standard deviation 2.6) weeks. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 12.8% (74/579) (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.1%-15.5%). The prevalence in the inland communities was twice as high as that in the coastal communities (18.0% v. 9.3%, p = 0.002). Women with gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance tended to be older, have had more pregnancies, weigh more before pregnancy and have heavier babies than those with a normal glycemic status. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of gestational diabetes among James Bay Cree women in northern Quebec is twice as high as that among women in the general North American population and the second highest reported in an aboriginal group worldwide. (+info)
Quality of care in unlicensed homes for the aged in the eastern townships of Quebec.
BACKGROUND: The recent proliferation of unlicensed homes for the aged in Quebec, coupled with the increased needs of the population they serve, has raised concerns about the quality of case these homes provide. The authors compared the quality of care in unlicensed homes with that in licensed long-term care facilities in a region of Quebec. METHODS: The study involved 301 impaired people aged 65 and over in 88 residential care facilities (52 unlicensed, 36 licensed) in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. Study participants were chosen according to a 2-stage sampling scheme: stratified sampling of the primary units (facilities) and random sampling of the secondary units (residents). Quality of care was measured using the QUALCARE scale, a multidimensional instrument that uses a 5-point scale to assess 6 dimensions of care: environmental, physical, medical management, psychosocial, human rights and financial. A mean score of more than 2 was considered indicative of inadequate care. RESULTS: Overall, the quality of care was similar in the unlicensed and licensed facilities (mean global score 1.61 [standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.06] and 1.47 [SEM 0.09] respectively). Examination of dimension-specific quality-of-care scores revealed that the unlicensed homes performed worse than the licensed facilities in 2 areas of care: physical care (mean score 1.80 [SEM 0.08] v. 1.51 [SEM 0.09] respectively, p = 0.017) and medical management (1.37 [SEM 0.06] v. 1.14 [SEM 0.05], p = 0.004). The dimension-specific scores also revealed that both types of homes lacked appropriate attention to the psychosocial aspect of care. Overall, 25% of the facilities provided inadequate care to at least one resident. This situation was especially prevalent among homes with fewer than 40 residents, where up to 20% of the residents received inadequate care. INTERPRETATION: Most of the unlicensed homes for the aged that were studied delivered care of relatively good quality. However, some clearly provided inadequate care. (+info)