Quantitative trait loci for component physiological traits determining salt tolerance in rice.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of ions in a shoot and for those that affect the concentration of an ion in the shoot. The latter coincide with QTL for vegetative growth (vigor) and their interpretation is therefore ambiguous. We distinguished those QTL that are independent of vigor and thus directly indicate quantitative variation in the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake. These QTL independently govern sodium uptake, potassium uptake, and sodium:potassium selectivity. The QTL for sodium and potassium uptake are on different linkage groups (chromosomes). This is consistent with the independent inheritance of sodium and potassium uptake in the mapping population and with the mechanistically different uptake pathways for sodium and potassium in rice under saline conditions (apoplastic leakage and membrane transport, respectively). We report the chromosomal location of ion transport and selectivity traits that are compatible with agronomic needs and we indicate markers to assist selection in a breeding program. Based upon knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake in rice, we argue that QTL for sodium transport are likely to act through the control of root development, whereas QTL for potassium uptake are likely to act through the structure or regulation of membrane-sited transport components. (+info)
Complex trait analysis of the mouse striatum: independent QTLs modulate volume and neuron number.
BACKGROUND: The striatum plays a pivotal role in modulating motor activity and higher cognitive function. We analyzed variation in striatal volume and neuron number in mice and initiated a complex trait analysis to discover polymorphic genes that modulate the structure of the basal ganglia. RESULTS: Brain weight, brain and striatal volume, neuron-packing density and number were estimated bilaterally using unbiased stereological procedures in five inbred strains (A/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, BALB/cJ, and BXD5) and an F2 intercross between A/J and BXD5. Striatal volume ranged from 20 to 37 mm3. Neuron-packing density ranged from approximately 50,000 to 100,000 neurons/mm3, and the striatal neuron population ranged from 1.4 to 2.5 million. Inbred animals with larger brains had larger striata but lower neuron-packing density resulting in a narrow range of average neuron populations. In contrast, there was a strong positive correlation between volume and neuron number among intercross progeny. We mapped two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with selective effects on striatal architecture. Bsc10a maps to the central region of Chr 10 (LRS of 17.5 near D10Mit186) and has intense effects on striatal volume and moderate effects on brain volume. Stnn19a maps to distal Chr 19 (LRS of 15 at D19Mit123) and is associated with differences of up to 400,000 neurons among animals. CONCLUSION: We have discovered remarkable numerical and volumetric variation in the mouse striatum, and we have been able to map two QTLs that modulate independent anatomic parameters. (+info)
Genotyping in the MHC locus: potential for defining predictive markers in sarcoidosis.
In sarcoidosis, host genetic factors are discussed as contributing to disease susceptibility and course. Since tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a central mediator of granuloma formation and since elevated TNF-alpha levels are found during active phases of sarcoidosis, genetic polymorphisms correlating with influences on TNF-alpha levels are of special interest. The complete sequencing of the MHC region and the increase in the number of identified gene polymorphisms in this locus associated with TNF-alpha production offer the opportunity of detecting new genes associated with sarcoidosis and perhaps of defining disease-associated haplotypes that bear the potential of serving as predictive markers for this disease. (+info)
Analyses of differential gene expression in genetic hypertensive rats by microarray.
We identified genes that were differentially expressed between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) using cDNA microarray analysis, and analyzed the correlation between these genes and hypertension. Twenty four genes were found to be up-regulated and 20 were down-regulated in SHR. We selected 11 genes (6 up-regulated genes: SAH, Hsp70, MCT1, RBP, IDI1, Prion; and 5 down-regulated genes: Thrombin, Dyn, SOD3, Ela1, Gst Y(b)) and subjected them to an F2 cosegregation analysis. One hundred five F2 rats were obtained from the same strains used for microarray analysis, and blood pressure was measured directly with a catheter implanted in the femoral artery. The genotypes of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and glutathione S-transferase Y(b) subunit significantly affected diastolic blood pressure in F2 rats, and these two genes are located near each other on chromosome 2. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis in this region revealed that the QTL for diastolic blood pressure were from these two genes. Antihypertensive treatment with either enalapril or hydralazine only affected the expression level of Hsp70, which was up-regulated by hydralazine, probably through compensatory sympathetic activation. We were unable to associate the other 10 genes with hypertension in SHR. Based on these results, the identification of differentially expressed genes may not be an efficient method for selecting candidate genes for hypertension in the SHR-WKY system. (+info)
Identification of genetic loci controlling bacterial clearance in experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection: an unexpected role of Nramp1 (Slc11a1) in the persistence of infection in mice.
The Gram-negative bacteria, Salmonella, cause a broad spectrum of clinical diseases in both animals and humans ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening sepsis. We have developed a model to study the contribution of genetic factors to the susceptibility of 129sv and C57BL/6J inbred mice to Salmonella enteritidis during the late phase of infection. C57BL/6J mice were able to eliminate completely sublethal inoculums of S. enteritidis from their reticuloendothelial system, whereas 129sv mice could not even after 60 days post inoculation. A genome scan performed on 302 (C57BL/6J x 129sv) F2 progeny identified three dominant loci (designated Ses1 to Ses3) that are associated with disease susceptibility in 129sv mice. Two highly significant linkages were identified on chromosomes 1 (Ses1) and 7 (Ses2) with respective LOD scores of 9.9 (P = 1.4 x 10(-11)) at D1Mcg5 and 4.0 (P = 1.9 x 10(-5)) at D7Mit62. One highly suggestive QTL was located on chromosomes15 (Ses3) with a LOD score 3.4 (P = 1.2 x 10(-4)). The estimated effects of Ses1, Ses2 and Ses3 on the bacterial clearance were greater in females. Using a model of three loci, with interaction between Ses1 and Ses2 and sex as a covariate, the three QTLs explained 32% of the phenotypic variance. The candidacy of Nramp1 as the gene for Ses1 was evaluated using mice carrying a null allele at Nramp1 (129sv-Nramp1(tm1Mcg)). These mice have a significantly lower spleen bacterial load compared to the wild-type 129sv mice, strongly suggesting the involvement of Nramp1 in controlling S. enteritidis clearance during the late phase of infection. (+info)
Plant defense genes associated with quantitative resistance to potato late blight in Solanum phureja x dihaploid S. tuberosum hybrids.
Markers corresponding to 27 plant defense genes were tested for linkage disequilibrium with quantitative resistance to late blight in a diploid potato population that had been used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance. Markers were detected by using (i) hybridization probes for plant defense genes, (ii) primer pairs amplifying conserved domains of resistance (R) genes, (iii) primers for defense genes and genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors, and (iv) primers allowing amplification of sequences flanking plant defense genes by the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Markers were initially screened by using the most resistant and susceptible individuals of the population, and those markers showing different allele frequencies between the two groups were mapped. Among the 308 segregating bands detected, 24 loci (8%) corresponding to six defense gene families were associated with resistance at chi2 > or = 13, the threshold established using the permutation test at P = 0.05. Loci corresponding to genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonium lyase [PAL], chalcone isomerase [CHI], and chalcone synthase [CHS]), loci related to WRKY regulatory genes, and other -defense genes (osmotin and a Phytophthora infestans-induced cytochrome P450) were significantly associated with quantitative disease resistance. A subset of markers was tested on the mapping population of 94 individuals. Ten defense-related markers were clustered at a QTL on chromosome III, and three defense-related markers were located at a broad QTL on chromosome XII. The association of candidate genes with QTLs is a step toward understanding the molecular basis of quantitative resistance to an important plant disease. (+info)
The genetic basis of the interspecific differences in wing size in Nasonia (Hymenoptera; Pteromalidae): major quantitative trait loci and epistasis.
There is a 2.5-fold difference in male wing size between two haplodiploid insect species, Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti. The haploidy of males facilitated a full genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting wing size and the detection of epistatic interactions. A QTL analysis of the interspecific wing-size difference revealed QTL with major effects and epistatic interactions among loci affecting the trait. We analyzed 178 hybrid males and initially found two major QTL for wing length, one for wing width, three for a normalized wing-size variable, and five for wing seta density. One QTL for wing width explains 38.1% of the phenotypic variance, and the same QTL explains 22% of the phenotypic variance in normalized wing size. This corresponds to a region previously introgressed from N. giraulti into N. vitripennis that accounts for 44% of the normalized wing-size difference between the species. Significant epistatic interactions were also found that affect wing size and density of setae on the wing. Screening for pairwise epistatic interactions between loci on different linkage groups revealed four additional loci for wing length and four loci for normalized wing size that were not detected in the original QTL analysis. We propose that the evolution of smaller wings in N. vitripennis males is primarily the result of major mutations at few genomic regions and involves epistatic interactions among some loci. (+info)
Nonequivalent Loci and the distribution of mutant effects.
It has been observed repeatedly that the distribution of new mutations of a quantitative trait has a kurtosis (a statistical measure of the distribution's shape) that is systematically larger than that of a normal distribution. Here we suggest that rather than being a property of individual loci that control the trait, the enhanced kurtosis is highly likely to be an emergent property that arises directly from the loci being mutationally nonequivalent. We present a method of incorporating nonequivalent loci into quantitative genetic modeling and give an approximate relation between the kurtosis of the mutant distribution and the degree of mutational nonequivalence of loci. We go on to ask whether incorporating the experimentally observed kurtosis through nonequivalent loci, rather than at locus level, affects any biologically important conclusions of quantitative genetic modeling. Concentrating on the maintenance of quantitative genetic variation by mutation-selection balance, we conclude that typically nonequivalent loci yield a genetic variance that is of order 10% smaller than that obtained from the previous approaches. For large populations, when the kurtosis is large, the genetic variance may be <50% of the result of equivalent loci, with Gaussian distributions of mutant effects. (+info)