Growth pattern of Qatari preschool children.
AIM: To compare the growth patterns of Qatari preschool children aged 0-5 years with the growth reference charts developed by the American National Center for Health Statistics and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS/CDC). METHODS: The demographic data of weight, height, and age were collected in a cross-sectional study among 8,231 Qatar children aged 0-5 years. There were 4,136 (50.2%) boys and 4,095 (49.8%) girls. The children were selected by a cross-sectional stratified random sampling procedure based on the stratification on the location and a socio-economic status. The measured data were compared with NCHS/CD growth charts. RESULTS: The boys were significantly taller than girls in age groups 0-6 months (58.3+/-4.1 vs 57.4+/-4.0 cm, respectively; p<0.001), 6-12 months (66.7+/-4.0 vs 66.2+/-5.1 cm, respectively; p=0.018), 48-54 months (102.1+/-3.6 vs 100.9+/-3.9 cm, respectively; p<0.001), and 54-60 months (106+/-4.8 vs 103.1+/-3.5 cm, respectively; p<0.001). The boys had significantly heavier weight pattern than the girls in all age groups (p<0.001). The height for boys ranged from 58.3 cm to 106 cm, and for girls from 57.4 cm to 103.1 cm. The weight range for boys was 5.4-17.6 kg and 5.1-16.8 kg for girls. More than 11% of the children had stunted growth, 5.4% of the children were taller than normal for their age, 4.4% of the children were undernourished, and 0.6% were severely undernourished. CONCLUSION: A combination of height for age (as an indicator of stunting) and weight for height (as an indicator of wasting) showed - that a sizeable proportion of Qatari children had normal or slightly above normal nutritional status. The growth pattern we presented may suffice as a standard for monitoring the growth of Qatari children in particular, and those in the Gulf region in general. (+info)
Genetics, obesity, and environmental risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes.
AIM: To determine the association between consanguineous marriages, obesity, and environmental risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes, in the adult Qatari population. METHODS: The case-control study was carried out among diabetic patients and healthy subjects at the Primary Healthcare Clinics (PHCs) and the survey was conducted from February to November 2003. The study included 338 cases (with diabetes) and 338 controls (without diabetes). Face-to-face interviews were based on a questionnaire that included variables such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, parity, income level, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), obesity, and lifestyle. Their health status was assessed by medical conditions, family history, physical examination, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood count, lipid profile, cholesterol total, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides analysis. RESULTS: The mean age (in years-/+standard deviation) of cases versus controls was 45.5-/+8.9 vs 42.4-/+8.0, P<0.001. The study revealed that there were statistically significant differences between diabetic and control subjects with respect to body mass index, low educational level, consanguineous marriage, and number of children (P<0.001). The obesity was considerably more frequent among diabetes subjects (P<0.001). Self reported family history (in first degree relatives) of diabetes (62.1% vs 44.4%, OR=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.49-2.83) P<0.001) was prominent among diabetic subjects. The diabetes was significantly common among the consanguineous marriages of the first degree relatives compared with the control group (33.1% vs. 24.6%, OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.11-2.29), P=0.008). Systolic blood pressure (P=0.023) and glucose fasting (P<0.001) levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects. The logistic regression model showed that smoking (OR=2.42 95% CI=1.66-3.54, P<0.0001); degree of consanguinity (OR=1.38 95% CI=1.13-1.69, P=0.002), BMI (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.12-1.76), P=0.003), level of education (OR=1.23 95% CI=1.04-1.45, P=0.017), number of children (OR=1.34 95% CI=1.02-1.77, P=0.037), and systolic blood pressure (OR=1.01 95% CI=1.00-1.02, P=0.044) were considered as associated risk factors for diabetes. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that obesity, consanguinity, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were more prevalent in diabetic patients. The characterization of these factors will contribute to defining more effective and specific strategies to screen for and control diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a developing country. (+info)
Does pleural tuberculosis disease pattern differ among developed and developing countries.
BACKGROUND: A number of reports from developed countries have documented a rising age at which pleural tuberculosis occurs and increase in the frequency of reactivation disease being as the main cause of pleural involvement. OBJECTIVE: To determine the age at which pleural tuberculosis occurs, study its clinical pattern, and to determine whether pleural tuberculosis is a result of reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis or it is a primary one comparing our findings with results from developed countries. METHOD: Retrospective study of 100 cases discharged from Hamad General Hospital with the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis from January 1996 to December 2002. RESULTS: Pleural tuberculosis tends to affect younger age groups (84% are below the age of 45 years, with mean age of 31.5). The disease tends to be mostly a primary infection. Fever is the most common symptom (90%) and the disease is usually an acute or sub acute one. Weight loss precedes other symptoms. Exudative pleural effusion with predominant lymphocytosis is characteristic. Majority of patients have no predisposing conditions for the disease. CONCLUSION: In contrast to what has been reported in some developed countries, Pleural tuberculosis tends to be a primary disease in the present study. Younger age groups are particularly affected. (+info)
Does the circadian pattern for acute cardiac events presentation vary with fasting?
BACKGROUND: Over one billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. The impact of fasting on circadian presentation with acute cardiac events is unknown. AIM: To determine if fasting has any effect on the circadian presentation of acute cardiac events. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a general hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute coronary events were divided into two groups based on the history of fasting. Information about age, gender, cardiovascular risk factor profiles and outcome was collected. The relationship of time of presentation of initial symptoms with fasting was evaluated using Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi2 analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1019 patients hospitalized during the study period, 162 were fasting. Although, fasting patients were more likely to present to the emergency department in the time periods 5-6 AM (10.5% vs 6.3%) and 11 PM (11.1% vs 7.1%) and were less likely to present in the time periods 1-2 PM (3.7% vs 7.2%) and 5-6 PM (3.7% vs 7.0%); these differences were not statistically significant. Fasting patients were less likely to have their symptoms start between 5 and 8 AM (11.1% vs 19.4%) and more likely to have symptoms between 5 and 6 PM (11.1% vs 6.0%) and 3 and 4 AM (11.1% vs 6.9%). These differences for time of initial symptoms were statistically significant (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Exogenous factors associated with fasting, namely, the changes in food intake and/or sleep timings, affect the circadian rhythm and influence the timing of presentation of acute coronary events. (+info)
Qatari DNA variation at a crossroad of human migrations.
Genomic diversity of the Qatari population was investigated by screening 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). Significant departures from genetic equilibrium were detected at the D13S317, D19S433 and VWA loci, which persisted after applying Bonferroni-type corrections. Gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.6851 (TPOX) to 0.8813 (D2S1338), while observed heterozygosity (Ho) oscillated between 0.3388 (D19S433) and 0.8397 (D2S1338). Interestingly, Ho was lower than expected (He) for 14 of the loci analyzed. The information provided by these microsatellite markers was analyzed by means of genetic distances, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical analyses of the molecular variance (AMOVA) and admixture estimations to assess the genetic relationships of Qatar with European, Asian, African and other Middle Eastern populations. The main findings of the study were the genetic uniqueness of the Qatari population, its strong similarity to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) group, a slight genetic differentiation with respect to other Arab populations (Syria and Egypt) and Turkey, and a certain genetic affinity with sub-Saharan African populations. These results are discussed in light of two major issues: the high consanguinity rates characterizing the Qatari population and its strategic geographic position in the Arabian Peninsula close to major migratory routes, an important pivotal contact zone for bidirectional dispersals between Eurasia and Africa. (+info)
Is there any effect of Ramadan fasting on stroke incidence?
INTRODUCTION: Over one billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Fasting during Ramadan is a radical change in lifestyle for the period of a lunar month. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Ramadan fasting has any effect on the incidence of stroke and its outcome in a geographically-defined population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a 13-year stroke database and studied the data on Muslim patients who were hospitalised with stroke over a 13-year period from January 1991 to December 2003. Patients were divided according to the time of presentation in relation to the month of Ramadan, one month before, during, and one month after Ramadan. The number of hospitalisations for stroke in various time periods was analysed. The age of presentation, gender, cardiovascular risk factor profiles (smoking status, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, and pre-existing cardiovascular disease) were analysed. We also studied the trends of in-hospital mortality, morbidity and acute medical care provided. RESULTS: Overall, 335 Muslim patients were hospitalised for stroke. Their mean age and standard deviation were 56.99 and 13.9 years, respectively. The number of hospitalisations for stroke was not significantly different in the month of Ramadan (29 cases), when compared to the month before Ramadan (30 cases) and the month after Ramadan (29 cases). Risk factors included for stroke were not significantly different in Ramadan when compared to the month before and after Ramadan. These associated diseases were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that no significant difference was found in the number of hospitalisations for stroke while fasting during the month of Ramadan when compared to the non-fasting months. (+info)
Incidence, etiology, and impact of diarrhea among deployed US military personnel in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.
A health assessment survey was collected from US military personnel deployed to the Middle East taking part in the "Rest and Recuperation" program or on temporary assignment to Camp As Sayliyah Doha, Qatar, from January to December 2004. In addition, a concurrent clinic-based observational study was conducted to determine pathogen etiology and potential risk factors. From 28,322 health assessment surveys, overall self-reported incidence of diarrhea was 4.9 cases per 100 person-months. Disease incidence increased with rank and was higher in Iraq compared with Afghanistan. During this period, 109 US military personnel with acute diarrhea and 85 asymptomatic personnel were enrolled in the observational study. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the predominant pathogen (32%), followed by enteroaggregative E. coli (12%) and Salmonella spp. (6%). These data are consistent with previous reports implicating ETEC as the primary cause of acute diarrhea for military personnel deployed to this region. (+info)
The Gulf Survey on Anemia Management (GSAM 2005).
We conducted this study to determine the achievements of the current practice guidelines in the management of anemia in the Arabian Gulf Countries. The survey was designed as a retrospective, one day screening of adult patients with end-stage renal disease in six Arabian Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates and Qatar. Data were collected on patients undergoing chronic dialysis. For random patient sampling, each participating center drew up an alphabetical list of all hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients which were 18 years or older and selected every fourth patient on the list. A total of 563 patients from 18 centers were included in the survey. The most common cause of end-stage renal failure was diabetic nephropathy, closely followed by chronic glomerulonephritis. The majority of patients were treated by HD, with only 20% receiving PD. The mean (+/-SD) hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration was 115 +/- 15 g/L (median, 115 g/L; range, 61-159 g/L). The Hgb concentration was > or = 110 g/L in 28%, > or = 120 g/L in 38% and < 100 g/L in 16%. Information on their iron status was available for 97% of patients, ferritin levels were available for 97% and TSAT values for 67% were available. The mean serum ferritin concentration for the study patients was 503 +/- 406 ng/ml (median, 390 ng/ml; range, 20.0-2960 ng/ml); 90.5% had a serum ferritin concentration > 100 ng/ml. We conclude that the results of our study demonstrate anemia management in the Gulf countries which is comparable to the European Survey on Anemia Management 2003 (ESAM 2003). However, many patients still have not reached the current recommendation of anemia management. (+info)