Pyruvate phosphate dikinase from a thermophilic actinomyces Microbispora rosea subsp. aerata: purification, characterization and molecular cloning of the gene.
Various thermophilic bacteria were analyzed by Southern hybridization analysis using oligonucleotide probes coding for the pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) gene from Clostridium symbiosum, and positive hybridization signals were observed in the chromosomal DNAs from Microbispora rosea subsp. aerata (IFO 14047). PPDK activity was detected in lactose induced cells and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity. The molecular mass of PPDK was estimated to be 230000 by gel filtration chromatography and 91000 by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that PPDK is a dimeric enzyme. This enzyme was specific for adenine nucleotide and the apparent Km values for AMP, PPi, and phosphoenolpyruvate were 5, 38, and 280 microM, respectively. It was stable in the pH range 6 to 11, and retained 80% activity after 60 min heat treatment at 60 degrees C. We cloned the PPDK gene from M. rosea. It consists of 878 amino acids with a molecular mass of 95514. Sequence comparison indicates around 50% similarity with other PPDKs and it has all the highly conserved regions of the related enzymes. We expressed the PPDK gene in Escherichia coli and obtained enzymatically active protein. (+info)
Identification of domain-domain docking sites within Clostridium symbiosum pyruvate phosphate dikinase by amino acid replacement.
Potential domain-domain docking residues, identified from the x-ray structure of the Clostridium symbiosum apoPPDK, were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. The steady-state and transient kinetic properties of the mutant enzymes were determined as a way of evaluating docking efficiency. PPDK mutants, in which one of two stringently conserved docking residues located on the N-terminal domain (Arg(219) and Glu(271)) was substituted, displayed largely unimpeded catalysis of the phosphoenolpyruvate partial reaction at the C-terminal domain, but significantly impaired catalysis (>10(4)) of the ATP pyrophosphorylation of His(455) at the N-terminal domain. In contrast, alanine mutants of two potential docking residues located on the N-terminal domain (Ser(262) and Lys(149)), which are not conserved among the PPDKs, exhibited essentially normal catalytic turnover. Arg(219) and Glu(271) were thus proposed to play an important role in guiding the central domain and, hence, the catalytic His(455) into position for catalysis. Substitution of central domain residues Glu(434)/Glu(437) and Thr(453), the respective docking partners of Arg(219) and Glu(271), resulted in mutants impaired in catalysis at the ATP active site. The x-ray crystal structure of the apo-T453A PPDK mutant was determined to test for possible misalignment of residues at the N-terminal domain-central domain interface that might result from loss of the Thr(453)-Glu(271) binding interaction. With the exception of the mutation site, the structure of T453A PPDK was found to be identical to that of the wild-type enzyme. It is hypothesized that the two Glu(271) interfacial binding sites that remain in the T453A PPDK mutant, Thr(453) backbone NH and Met(452) backbone NH, are sufficient to stabilize the native conformation as observed in the crystalline state but may be less effective in populating the reactive conformation in solution. (+info)
Investigation of the catalytic site within the ATP-grasp domain of Clostridium symbiosum pyruvate phosphate dikinase.
Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyzes the interconversion of ATP, P(i), and pyruvate with AMP, PP(i), and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in three partial reactions as follows: 1) E-His + ATP --> E-His-PP.AMP; 2) E-His-PP.AMP + P(i) --> E-His-P.AMP.PP(i); and 3) E-His-P + pyruvate --> E.PEP using His-455 as the carrier of the transferred phosphoryl groups. The crystal structure of the Clostridium symbiosum PPDK (in the unbound state) reveals a three-domain structure consisting of consecutive N-terminal, central His-455, and C-terminal domains. The N-terminal and central His-455 domains catalyze partial reactions 1 and 2, whereas the C-terminal and central His-455 domains catalyze partial reaction 3. Attempts to obtain a crystal structure of the enzyme with substrate ligands bound at the nucleotide binding domain have been unsuccessful. The object of the present study is to demonstrate Mg(II) activation of catalysis at the ATP/P(i) active site, to identify the residues at the ATP/P(i) active site that contribute to catalysis, and to identify roles for these residues based on their positions within the active site scaffold. First, Mg(II) activation studies of catalysis of E + ATP + P(i) --> E-P + AMP + PP(i) partial reaction were carried out using a truncation mutant (Tem533) in which the C-terminal domain is absent. The kinetics show that a minimum of 2 Mg(II) per active site is required for the reaction. The active site residues used for substrate/cofactor binding/activation were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Lys-22, Arg-92, Asp-321, Glu-323, and Gln-335 mutants were found to be inactive; Arg-337, Glu-279, Asp-280, and Arg-135 mutants were partially active; and Thr-253 and Gln-240 mutants were almost fully active. The participation of the nucleotide ribose 2'-OH and alpha-P in enzyme binding is indicated by the loss of productive binding seen with substrate analogs modified at these positions. The ATP, P(i), and Mg(II) ions were docked into the PPDK N-terminal domain crevice, in an orientation consistent with substrate/cofactor binding modes observed for other members of the ATP-Grasp fold enzyme superfamily and consistent with the structure-function data. On the basis of this docking model, the ATP polyphosphate moiety is oriented/activated for pyrophosphoryl transfer through interaction with Lys-22 (gamma-P), Arg-92 (alpha-P), and the Gly-101 to Met-103 loop (gamma-P) as well as with the Mg(II) cofactors. The P(i) is oriented/activated for partial reaction 2 through interaction with Arg-337 and a Mg(II) cofactor. The Mg(II) ions are bound through interaction with Asp-321, Glu-323, and Gln-335 and substrate. Residues Glu-279, Asp-280, and Arg-135 are suggested to function in the closure of an active site loop, over the nucleotide ribose-binding site. (+info)
Significant accumulation of C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in a C(3) plant, rice.
The C(4)-Pdk gene encoding the C(4) enzyme pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) of maize (Zea mays cv Golden Cross Bantam) was introduced into the C(3) plant, rice (Oryza sativa cv Kitaake). When the intact maize C(4)-Pdk gene, containing its own promoter and terminator sequences and exon/intron structure, was introduced, the PPDK activity in the leaves of some transgenic lines was greatly increased, in one line reaching 40-fold over that of wild-type plants. In a homozygous line, the PPDK protein accounted for 35% of total leaf-soluble protein or 16% of total leaf nitrogen. In contrast, introduction of a chimeric gene containing the full-length cDNA of the maize PPDK fused to the maize C(4)-Pdk promoter or the rice Cab promoter only increased PPDK activity and protein level slightly. These observations suggest that the intron(s) or the terminator sequence of the maize gene, or a combination of both, is necessary for high-level expression. In maize and transgenic rice plants carrying the intact maize gene, the level of transcript in the leaves per copy of the maize C(4)-Pdk gene was comparable, and the maize gene was expressed in a similar organ-specific manner. These results suggest that the maize C(4)-Pdk gene behaves in a quantitatively and qualitatively similar way in maize and transgenic rice plants. The activity of the maize PPDK protein expressed in rice leaves was light/dark regulated as it is in maize. This is the first reported evidence for the presence of an endogenous PPDK regulatory protein in a C(3) plant. (+info)
Overexpression of C(4)-cycle enzymes in transgenic C(3) plants: a biotechnological approach to improve C(3)-photosynthesis.
The process of photorespiration diminishes the efficiency of CO(2) assimilation and yield of C(3)-crops such as wheat, rice, soybean or potato, which are important for feeding the growing world population. Photorespiration starts with the competitive inhibition of CO(2) fixation by O(2) at the active site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and can result in a loss of up to 50% of the CO(2) fixed in ambient air. By contrast, C(4) plants, such as maize, sugar cane and Sorghum, possess a CO(2) concentrating mechanism, by which atmospheric CO(2) is bound to C(4)-carbon compounds and shuttled from the mesophyll cells where the prefixation of bicarbonate occurs via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) into the gas-tight bundle-sheath cells, where the bound carbon is released again as CO(2) and enters the Calvin cycle. However, the anatomical division into mesophyll and bundle-sheaths cells ("Kranz"-anatomy) appears not to be a prerequisite for the operation of a CO(2) concentrating mechanism. Submerged aquatic macrophytes, for instance, can induce a C(4)-like CO(2) concentrating mechanism in only one cell type when CO(2) becomes limiting. A single cell C(4)-mechanism has also been reported recently for a terrestrial chenopod. For over 10 years researchers in laboratories around the world have attempted to improve photosynthesis and crop yield by introducing a single cell C(4)-cycle in C(3) plants by a transgenic approach. In the meantime, there has been substantial progress in overexpressing the key enzymes of the C(4) cycle in rice, potato, and tobacco. In this review there will be a focus on biochemical and physiological consequences of the overexpression of C(4)-cycle genes in C(3) plants. Bearing in mind that C(4)-cycle enzymes are also present in C(3) plants, the pitfalls encountered when C(3) metabolism is perturbed by the overexpression of individual C(4) genes will also be discussed. (+info)
Pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase in leaves and chloroplasts of C(3) plants undergoes light-/dark-induced reversible phosphorylation.
Pyruvate,orthophosphate (Pi) dikinase (PPDK) is best recognized as a chloroplastic C(4) cycle enzyme. As one of the key regulatory foci for controlling flux through this photosynthetic pathway, it is strictly and reversibly regulated by light. This light/dark modulation is mediated by reversible phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the active-site domain by the PPDK regulatory protein (RP), a bifunctional protein kinase/phosphatase. PPDK is also present in C(3) plants, although it has no known photosynthetic function. Nevertheless, in this report we show that C(3) PPDK in leaves of several angiosperms and in isolated intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts undergoes light-/dark-induced changes in phosphorylation state in a manner similar to C(4) dikinase. In addition, the kinetics of this process closely resemble the reversible C(4) process, with light-induced dephosphorylation occurring rapidly (< or =15 min) and dark-induced phosphorylation occurring much more slowly (> or =30-60 min). In intact spinach chloroplasts, light-induced dephosphorylation of C(3) PPDK was shown to be dependent on exogenous Pi and photosystem II activity but independent of electron transfer from photosystem I. These in organello results implicate a role for stromal pools of Pi and adenylates in regulating the reversible phosphorylation of C(3)-PPDK. Last, we used an in vitro RP assay to directly demonstrate ADP-dependent PPDK phosphorylation in desalted leaf extracts of the C(3) plants Vicia faba and rice (Oryza sativa). We conclude that an RP-like activity mediates the light/dark modulation of PPDK phosphorylation state in C(3) leaves and chloroplasts and likely represents the ancestral isoform of this unusual and key C(4) pathway regulatory "converter" enzyme. (+info)
Sensitivity of photosynthesis in a C4 plant, maize, to heat stress.
Our objective was to determine the sensitivity of components of the photosynthetic apparatus of maize (Zea mays), a C4 plant, to high temperature stress. Net photosynthesis (Pn) was inhibited at leaf temperatures above 38 degrees C, and the inhibition was much more severe when the temperature was increased rapidly rather than gradually. Transpiration rate increased progressively with leaf temperature, indicating that inhibition was not associated with stomatal closure. Nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (qN) increased at leaf temperatures above 30 degrees C, indicating increased thylakoid energization even at temperatures that did not inhibit Pn. Compared with CO(2) assimilation, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)) was relatively insensitive to leaf temperatures up to 45 degrees C. The activation state of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase decreased marginally at leaf temperatures above 40 degrees C, and the activity of pyruvate phosphate dikinase was insensitive to temperature up to 45 degrees C. The activation state of Rubisco decreased at temperatures exceeding 32.5 degrees C, with nearly complete inactivation at 45 degrees C. Levels of 3-phosphoglyceric acid and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate decreased and increased, respectively, as leaf temperature increased, consistent with the decrease in Rubisco activation. When leaf temperature was increased gradually, Rubisco activation acclimated in a similar manner as Pn, and acclimation was associated with the expression of a new activase polypeptide. Rates of Pn calculated solely from the kinetics of Rubisco were remarkably similar to measured rates if the calculation included adjustment for temperature effects on Rubisco activation. We conclude that inactivation of Rubisco was the primary constraint on the rate of Pn of maize leaves as leaf temperature increased above 30 degrees C. (+info)
Isolation of 3-phosphohistidine from phosphorylated pyruvate, phosphate dikinase.
Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (EC 2-7-9-1) catalyzes formation of phosphoenolpyruvate, AMP, and inorganic pyrophosphate from pyruvate, ATP, and orthophosphate. A pyrophosphoryl and phosphoryl form of the enzyme is involved in this transfer. The [32P]phosphoryl form of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase was prepared with enzyme isolated from Bacteroides symbiosus. The [32P]phosphoryl enzyme was found to have properties corresponding to a phosphoramidate linkage and this was confirmed by isolation of 3-[32P]phosphohistidine from alkaline hydrolysates of the enzyme. The histidyl residue is considered to be the pyrophosphoryl- and phosphoryl-carrier between the three substrate sites of this enzyme. (+info)