GroEL/GroES-dependent reconstitution of alpha2 beta2 tetramers of humanmitochondrial branched chain alpha-ketoacid decarboxylase. Obligatory interaction of chaperonins with an alpha beta dimeric intermediate.
The decarboxylase component (E1) of the human mitochondrial branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (approximately 4-5 x 10(3) kDa) is a thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme, comprising two 45.5-kDa alpha subunits and two 37.8-kDa beta subunits. In the present study, His6-tagged E1 alpha2 beta2 tetramers (171 kDa) denatured in 8 M urea were competently reconstituted in vitro at 23 degrees C with an absolute requirement for chaperonins GroEL/GroES and Mg-ATP. Unexpectedly, the kinetics for the recovery of E1 activity was very slow with a rate constant of 290 M-1 s-1. Renaturation of E1 with a similarly slow kinetics was also achieved using individual GroEL-alpha and GroEL-beta complexes as combined substrates. However, the beta subunit was markedly more prone to misfolding than the alpha in the absence of GroEL. The alpha subunit was released as soluble monomers from the GroEL-alpha complex alone in the presence of GroES and Mg-ATP. In contrast, the beta subunit discharged from the GroEL-beta complex readily rebound to GroEL when the alpha subunit was absent. Analysis of the assembly state showed that the His6-alpha and beta subunits released from corresponding GroEL-polypeptide complexes assembled into a highly structured but inactive 85.5-kDa alpha beta dimeric intermediate, which subsequently dimerized to produce the active alpha2 beta2 tetrameter. The purified alpha beta dimer isolated from Escherichia coli lysates was capable of binding to GroEL to produce a stable GroEL-alpha beta ternary complex. Incubation of this novel ternary complex with GroES and Mg-ATP resulted in recovery of E1 activity, which also followed slow kinetics with a rate constant of 138 M-1 s-1. Dimers were regenerated from the GroEL-alpha beta complex, but they needed to interact with GroEL/GroES again, thereby perpetuating the cycle until the conversion from dimers to tetramers was complete. Our study describes an obligatory role of chaperonins in priming the dimeric intermediate for subsequent tetrameric assembly, which is a slow step in the reconstitution of E1 alpha2 beta2 tetramers. (+info)
Aspartate-27 and glutamate-473 are involved in catalysis by Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase.
Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 188.8.131.52) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis at two acidic residues near the thiamin diphosphate cofactor in the active site. Asp-27 was changed to Glu or Asn, and Glu-473 was mutated to Asp (E473D) or Gln (E473Q). Each mutant protein was purified to near-homogeneity, and the kinetic and cofactor-binding properties were compared with those of the wild-type protein. Despite the very conservative nature of these alterations, all mutants had a very low, but measurable, specific activity ranging from 0.025% (E473Q) to 0.173% (E473D) of the wild type. With the exception of E473Q, the mutants showed small decreases in the affinity for thiamin diphosphate, and binding of the second cofactor (Mg2+) was also weakened somewhat. With E473Q, both cofactors seemed to be very tightly bound so that they were not removed by the treatment that was effective for the wild-type enzyme and other mutant forms. All mutants showed minor changes in the Km for substrate, but these alterations did not account for the low activities. These low specific activities, accompanied by little change in the Km for pyruvate, are consistent with a quantitative model of the catalytic cycle in which the main effect of the mutations is to slow the decarboxylation step with a minor change in the rate constant for pyruvate binding. (+info)
Autoregulation of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase gene expression requires the enzyme but not its catalytic activity.
In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) is encoded by the two isogenes PDC1 and PDC5. Deletion of the more strongly expressed PDC1 gene stimulates the promoter activity of both PDC1 and PDC5, a phenomenon called Pdc autoregulation. Hence, pdc1Delta strains have high Pdc specific activity and can grow on glucose medium. In this work we have characterized the mutant alleles pdc1-8 and pdc1-14, which cause strongly diminished Pdc activity and an inability to grow on glucose. Both mutant alleles are expressed as detectable proteins, each of which differs from the wild-type by a single amino acid. The cloned pdc1-8 and pdc1-14 alleles, as well as the in-vitro-generated pdc1-51 (Glu51Ala) allele, repressed expression of PDC5 and diminished Pdc specific activity. Thus, the repressive effect of Pdc1p on PDC5 expression seems to be independent of its catalytic activity. A pdc1-8 mutant was used to isolate spontaneous suppressor mutations, which allowed expression of PDC5. All three mutants characterized had additional mutations within the pdc1-8 allele. Two of these mutations resulted in a premature translational stop conferring phenotypes virtually indistinguishable from those of a pdc1Delta mutation. The third mutation, pdc1-803, led to a deletion of two amino acids adjacent to the pdc1-8 mutation. The alleles pdc1-8 and pdc1-803 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. In the crude extract, both proteins had 10% residual activity, which was lost during purification, probably due to dissociation of the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP). The defect in pdc1-8 (Asp291Asn) and the two amino acids deleted in pdc1-803 (Ser296 and Phe297) are located within a flexible loop in the beta domain. This domain appears to determine the relative orientation of the alpha and gamma domains, which bind ThDP. Alterations in this loop may also affect the conformational change upon substrate binding. The mutation in pdc1-14 (Ser455Phe) is located within the ThDP fold and is likely to affect binding and/or orientation of the cofactor in the protein. We suggest that autoregulation is triggered by a certain conformation of Pdc1p and that the mutations in pdc1-8 and pdc1-14 may lock Pdc1p in vivo in a conformational state which leads to repression of PDC5. (+info)
Thiamine repression and pyruvate decarboxylase autoregulation independently control the expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDC5 gene.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PDC5 encodes the minor isoform of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc). In this work we show that expression of PDC5 but not that of PDC1, which encodes the major isoform, is repressed by thiamine. Hence, under thiamine limitation both PDC1 and PDC5 are expressed. PDC5 also becomes strongly expressed in a pdc1delta mutant. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of whole protein extracts shows that thiamine limitation stimulates the production of THI gene products and of Pdc5p. Deletion of PDC1 only stimulates production of Pdc5p. We conclude that the stimulation of PDC5 expression in a pdc1delta mutant is not due to a response to thiamine limitation. (+info)
Interplay of organic and biological chemistry in understanding coenzyme mechanisms: example of thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylations of 2-oxo acids.
With the publication of the three-dimensional structures of several thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes, the chemical mechanism of their non-oxidative and oxidative decarboxylation reactions is better understood. Chemical models for these reactions serve a useful purpose to help evaluate the additional catalytic rate acceleration provided by the protein component. The ability to generate, and spectroscopically observe, the two key zwitterionic intermediates invoked in such reactions allowed progress to be made in elucidating the rates and mechanisms of the elementary steps leading to and from these intermediates. The need remains to develop chemical models, which accurately reflect the enzyme-bound conformation of this coenzyme. (+info)
Replacement of a metabolic pathway for large-scale production of lactic acid from engineered yeasts.
Interest in the production of L-(+)-lactic acid is presently growing in relation to its applications in the synthesis of biodegradable polymer materials. With the aim of obtaining efficient production and high productivity, we introduced the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) into a wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis yeast strain. The observed lactic acid production was not satisfactory due to the continued coproduction of ethanol. A further restructuring of the cellular metabolism was obtained by introducing the LDH gene into a K. lactis strain in which the unique pyruvate decarboxylase gene had been deleted. With this modified strain, in which lactic fermentation substituted completely for the pathway leading to the production of ethanol, we obtained concentrations, productivities, and yields of lactic acid as high as 109 g liter(-1), 0.91 g liter(-1) h(-1), and 1.19 mol per mole of glucose consumed, respectively. The organic acid was also produced at pH levels lower than those usual for bacterial processes. (+info)
Crystal versus solution structures of thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.
The quaternary structures of the thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes transketolase (EC 184.108.40.206; from Saccharomyces cerevisiae), pyruvate oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11; from Lactobacillus plantarum), and pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 18.104.22.168; from Zymomonas mobilis and brewers' yeast, the latter in the native and pyruvamide-activated forms) were examined by synchrotron x-ray solution scattering. The experimental scattering data were compared with the curves calculated from the crystallographic models of these multisubunit enzymes. For all enzymes noted above, except the very compact pyruvate decarboxylase from Z. mobilis, there were significant differences between the experimental and calculated profiles. The changes in relative positions of the subunits in solution were determined by rigid body refinement. For pyruvate oxidase and transketolase, which have tight intersubunit contacts in the crystal, relatively small modifications of the quaternary structure (root mean square displacements of 0.23 and 0.27 nm, respectively) sufficed to fit the experimental data. For the enzymes with looser contacts (the native and activated forms of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase), large modifications of the crystallographic models (root mean square displacements of 0.58 and 1.53 nm, respectively) were required. A clear correlation was observed between the magnitude of the distortions induced by the crystal environment and the interfacial area between subunits. (+info)
The structural basis of substrate activation in yeast pyruvate decarboxylase. A crystallographic and kinetic study.
The crystal structure of the complex of the thiamine diphosphate dependent tetrameric enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from brewer's yeast strain with the activator pyruvamide has been determined to 2.4 A resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two subunits, and the tetrameric molecule is generated by crystallographic symmetry. Structure analysis revealed conformational nonequivalence of the active sites. One of the two active sites in the asymmetric unit was found in an open conformation, with two active site loop regions (residues 104-113 and 290-304) disordered. In the other subunit, these loop regions are well-ordered and shield the active site from the bulk solution. In the closed enzyme subunit, one molecule of pyruvamide is bound in the active site channel, and is located in the vicinity of the thiazolium ring of the cofactor. A second pyruvamide binding site was found at the interface between the Pyr and the R domains of the subunit in the closed conformation, about 10 A away from residue C221. This second pyruvamide molecule might function in stabilizing the unique orientation of the R domain in this subunit which in turn is important for dimer-dimer interactions in the activated tetramer. No difference electron density in the close vicinity of the side chain of residue C221 was found, indicating that this residue does not form a covalent adduct with an activator molecule. Kinetic experiments showed that substrate activation was not affected by oxidation of cysteine residues and therefore does not seem to be dependent on intact thiol groups in the enzyme. The results suggest that a disorder-order transition of two active-site loop regions is a key event in the activation process triggered by the activator pyruvamide and that covalent modification of C221 is not required for this transition to occur. Based on these findings, a possible mechanism for the activation of PDC by its substrate, pyruvate, is proposed. (+info)