Determination of S-genotypes of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars by S-RNase sequencing and PCR-RFLP analyses.
The pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) has gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). To elucidate the S-genotypes of Korean-bred pear cultivars, whose parents are heterozygotes, the PCR amplification using S-RNase primers that are specific for each S-genotype was carried out in 15 Korean-bred pear cultivars and 5 Japanese-bred pear cultivars. The difference of the fragment length was shown in the following order: S6 (355 bp) < S7 (360 bp) < S1 (375 bp) < S4 (376 bp) < S3 and S5 (384 bp) < S8 (442 bp) < S9 (1,323 bp) < S2 (1,355 bp). We analyzed the sequence of the S-RNase gene, which had introns of various sizes in the hypervariable (HV) region between the adjacent exons with a fairly high homology. The sizes of the introns were as follows: S1 = 167 bp, S2 = 1,153 bp, S3 = 179 bp, S4 = 168 bp, S5 = 179 bp, S6 = 147 bp, S7 = 152 bp, S8 = 234 bp, S9 = 1,115 bp. There were five conservative and five hypervariable regions in the introns of S1, S3, S4, S5, S6 and S-RNases. A pairwise comparison of these introns of S-RNases revealed homologies as follows: 93.7% between S1- and S4-RNases, 93.3% between S3- and S5-RNases and 78.9% between S6- and S7-RNases. PCR-RFLP and S-RNases sequencing determined the S-genotypes of the pear cultivars. The S-genotypes were S4S9 for Shinkou, S3S9 for Niitaka, S3S5 for Housui, S1S5 for Kimizukawase, S1S8 for Ichiharawase, S3S5 for Mansoo, S3S4 for Shinil, S3S4 for Whangkeumbae, S3S5 for Sunhwang, S3S5 for Whasan, S3S5 for Mihwang, S5S? for Chengsilri, S3S5 for Gamro, S3S4 for Yeongsanbae, S3S4 for Wonhwang, S3S5 for Gamcheonbae, S3S5 for Danbae, S3S4 for Manpoong, S3S4 for Soowhangbae and S4S6 for Chuwhangbae. The information on the S-genotypes of pear cultivars will be used for the pollinizer selection and breeding program. (+info)
Genetics of biosynthesis and structure of the capsular exopolysaccharide from the Asian pear pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae.
Erwinia pyrifoliae is a novel bacterial pathogen, which causes Asian pear blight and is related to Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. E. pyrifoliae produces exopolysaccharide (EPS) related to amylovoran in its sugar composition and sugar linkages. This was shown by degradation of the EPS with a viral depolymerase, and by methylation analysis and ESI/MS. The structure of the repeating units was confirmed by (1)H-NMR spectra. The EPS of E. pyrifoliae carried side chains, which were mainly terminated by acetyl and pyruvyl residues as found previously for amylovoran. On the other hand, a second side chain with glucose found for up to 65% of the repeating units of amylovoran was completely absent. The nucleotide sequences of five genes of the cps cluster of E. pyrifoliae encoding proteins for EPS synthesis were characterized and displayed a high homology with the corresponding ams genes. Similar functions of the gene products are assumed. As for ams mutants of E. amylovora, a cpsB mutant of E. pyrifoliae did not synthesize EPS and did not produce ooze on slices of immature pears or symptoms on pear seedlings. The cps mutant was complemented for EPS synthesis and virulence on pear slices with a gene cluster of E. amylovora that included amsB. (+info)
Molecular characterization of natural Erwinia pyrifoliae strains deficient in hypersensitive response.
From necrotic tissue of a Nashi pear tree, 24 Erwinia pyrifoliae strains, found to be identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, were isolated. Thirteen strains were not virulent on immature pears and did not induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves. The defective gene hrpL was complemented with intact genes from E. pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora. (+info)
Ethylene is required for both the initiation and progression of softening in pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit.
In order to investigate the physiological role of ethylene in the initiation and subsequent progression of softening, pear fruit were treated with propylene, an analogue of ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a gaseous inhibitor of ethylene action at the preclimacteric or ripening stages. The propylene treatment at the pre-ripe stage stimulated ethylene production and flesh softening while the 1-MCP treatment at the same stage markedly retarded the initiation of the ripening-related events. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment after the initiation of ripening markedly suppressed the subsequent flesh softening and ethylene production. These results clearly indicate that ethylene is not merely a by-product, but plays a crucial role in both the initiation and maintenance of regulating the softening process during ripening. The observations also suggest that ethylene in ripening is regulated entirely in an autocatalytic manner. The mRNA accumulation of pear polygalacturonases (PG) genes, PC-PG1 and PC-PG2, was in parallel with the pattern of fruit softening in both propylene and 1-MCP treatments. However, the expression pattern of pear endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanases (EGase) genes, PC-EG1 and PC-EG2, was not affected in both treatments. The results suggest that ethylene is required for PGs expression even in the late ripening stage, but not for EGases. (+info)
Bacteriophages of Erwinia amylovora.
Fifty bacteriophage isolates of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight, were collected from sites in and around the Niagara region of southern Ontario and the Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario. Forty-two phages survived the isolation, purification, and storage processes. The majority of the phages in the collection were isolated from the soil surrounding trees exhibiting fire blight symptoms. Only five phages were isolated from infected aerial tissue in pear and apple orchards. To avoid any single-host selection bias, six bacterial host strains were used in the initial isolation and enrichment processes. Molecular characterization of the phages with a combination of PCR and restriction endonuclease digestions showed that six distinct phage types, described as groups 1 to 6, were recovered. Ten phage isolates were related to the previously characterized E. amylovora PEa1, with some divergence of molecular markers between phages isolated from different sites. A study of the host ranges of the phages revealed that certain types were unable to efficiently lyse some E. amylovora strains and that some isolates were able to lyse the epiphytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. Representatives from the six molecular groups were studied by electron microscopy to determine their morphology. The phages exhibited distinct morphologies when examined by an electron microscope. Group 1 and 2 phages were tailed and contractile, and phages belonging to groups 3 to 6 had short tails or openings with thin appendages. Based on morphotypes, the bacteriophages of E. amylovora were placed in the order Caudovirales, in the families Myoviridae and PODOVIRIDAE: (+info)
Carbon dioxide action on ethylene biosynthesis of preclimacteric and climacteric pear fruit.
Ethylene production in pear fruit was studied at 2 degrees C. Several observations showed that the inhibiting effect of CO2 on ethylene production did not operate only via the binding site of the ethylene binding protein. Ethylene production of freshly harvested pears was stimulated by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), but unaffected or inhibited by CO2 which points to different action sites for both molecules. In climacteric pears, where ethylene production was strongly inhibited by 1-MCP, a range of applied CO2 partial pressures was able to inhibit ethylene production further, to an extent similar to untreated pears. In the case of pears that had been stored for a period of 25 weeks, CO2 only had a clear effect after 1-MCP pretreatment. Respiration measurements showed that the effect of CO2 on ethylene production did not operate via an effect on respiration. Ethylene production models based on measurements of whole pears were used to study CO2 effects. Kinetic parameters derived from the models point to the conversion from ACC to ethylene by ACC oxidase as a possible action site for CO2 inhibition. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of four ethylene perception elements and their expression during ripening in pears (Pyrus communis L) with/without cold requirement.
Pear (Pyrus communis L.) are climacteric fruit: their ripening is associated with a burst of autocatalytic ethylene production. Some late pear cultivars, such as Passe-Crassane (PC) require a long (80 d) chilling treatment before the fruit will produce autocatalytic ethylene and ripen. As the cold requirement is linked to the capacity to respond to ethylene (or its analogue, propylene), three pear cDNAs homologous to the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor genes At-ETR1, At-ERS1, and At-ETR2, designated Pc-ETR1a (AF386509), Pc-ERS1a (AF386515), and Pc-ETR5 (AF386511), respectively, have been isolated. A pear homologue of the Arabidopsis ethylene signal transduction pathway gene At-CTR1, called Pc-CTR1 (AF386508) has also been isolated. The search of the genomic sequences for Pc-ETR1a and Pc-ERS1a resulted in the isolation of four related genomic clones Pc-DETR1a (AF386525), Pc-DETR1b (AF386520), Pc-DERS1a (AF386517), and Pc-DERS1b (AF386522). Analysis of transcript levels for the four cDNAs in PC and pear fruit genotypes with little or no cold requirement revealed that Pc-ETR1a expression increased during chilling treatment, and Pc-ETR1a, Pc-ERS1a, Pc-ETR5, and Pc-CTR1 expression increased during fruit ripening and after ethylene treatment. Whether the differences in the ethylene response elements studied here are the cause or an effect of the cold requirement in PC fruit is discussed. (+info)
Qualitative and quantitative chromatographic investigation of flavonoids in Pyrus communis L. flowers.
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids, and the quantitative determination of procyanidins in the flowers of naturally growing Pyrus communis and in the flowers of cultivated varieties were carried out. The flavonoid compounds were investigated by chromatographic methods. The flavonoid samples were found in all the studied plant materials. The content of flavonoids was determined by the Christ-Muller's and HPLC methods after acid hydrolysis. The quantitative determination of procyanidins was carried out by the spectrophotometric method. (+info)