(1/1340) Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis.
Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM. (+info)
(2/1340) Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats.
1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. (+info)
(3/1340) 17beta-oestradiol increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat enterocytes. Potential role of phospholipase C-dependent store-operated Ca2+ influx.
The involvement of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway in the non-genomic regulation of duodenal cell Ca2+ concentration by 17beta-oestradiol was investigated. The PLC inhibitors neomycin (0.5 mM) and U-73122 (2 microM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 0.1 nM 17beta-oestradiol on the 45Ca2+ influx into enterocytes isolated from rat duodenum. The hormone (1 pM to 10 nM) increased the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol in a biphasic pattern, characterized by an early peak at 45 s (+82%) and a later peak at 5 min (+46%). Both PLC inhibitors suppressed the first peak but were unable to block the 17beta-oestradiol effect at 5 min. 17beta-Oestradiol also increased the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate within 15 s, with maximal stimulation at 30 s. 17beta-Oestradiol induced a rapid (30 s) and sustained (up to 5 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of fura 2-loaded enterocytes. The fast rise in [Ca2+]i was specific because other sex steroid hormones were without effect and could be blocked to a great extent by U-73122 (by 86% at 1 min). The effects of 17beta-oestradiol on enterocyte [Ca2+]i were decreased significantly (by 75%) in a Ca2+-free extracellular medium but a pronounced increase in [Ca2+]i was obtained after readmission of Ca2+ to the medium. The latter change was suppressed by 10 microM La3+, whereas nitrendipine (1 microM) and verapamil (10 microM) separately were without effect. The permeability of the 17beta-oestradiol-induced Ca2+ influx pathway to Mn2+ was increased 2.8-fold by treatment with oestrogen. These results suggest the operation of a PLC-dependent store-operated Ca2+ channel mechanism in 17beta-oestradiol regulation of enterocyte extracellular Ca2+ influx. (+info)
(4/1340) Effects of (+)-HA-966, CGS-19755, phencyclidine, and dizocilpine on repeated acquisition of response chains in pigeons: systemic manipulation of central glycine sites.
The effects of i.m. injections of (+)-HA-966, a glycine-site antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor, its enantiomer (-)-HA-966, the competitive glutamate antagonist CGS-19755, the uncompetitive glutamate antagonists phencyclidine and dizocilpine, and the micro opioid agonist morphine were evaluated in a repeated acquisition task in pigeons. All of the drugs produced dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. The NMDA receptor and channel blockers and (+)-HA-966 appeared to have a greater effect on acquisition than did morphine at doses that did not fully suppress responding. The rate suppression and learning impairment produced by a large dose of (+)-HA-966 (100 mg/kg) were completely prevented by coadministration of the glycine-site agonist D-serine (560 mg/kg) but not by its enantiomer, L-serine (1000 mg/kg). D-Serine, however, produced incomplete antagonism of the effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine and failed to alter those of CGS-19755. These findings provide evidence that reducing the activity of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor through pharmacological action at any of three sites produces similar decrements in acquisition, and those produced through antagonism of the glycine site are differentially sensitive to the glycine-site agonist D-serine. (+info)
(5/1340) Disposition and metabolism of 2-(2''(1'',3''-dioxolan-2-yl)-2- methyl-4-(2'-oxopyrrolidin-1-Yl)-6-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran (SKP-450) in rats.
The disposition and metabolism of the new antihypertensive agent 2-(2"(1", 3"-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-methyl-4-(2'-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-6-nitro -2H-1-benzopyran (SKP-450) were investigated in male rats after single oral and i.v. doses of 14C-labeled compound. After an oral 2.0 mg/kg dose, mean radiocarbon recovery was 98.2 +/- 2.3% with 31.1 +/- 7.3% in the feces and 67.1 +/- 14.3% in the urine. Biliary excretion of radioactivity for the first 24-h period was approximately 40%, suggesting that SKP-450 is cleared either by hepatobiliary excretion or by renal excretion. SKP-450 was well absorbed; bioavailability calculated on the basis of radioactivity was 68 to 97%. Tissue distribution of the radioactivity was widespread with high concentrations in the liver and kidney but low central nervous system penetration. Radio-HPLC analysis of bile and urine from rats indicated the extensive metabolism of SKP-450 into oxidative metabolites. Oxidative metabolism of the dioxolanyl ring resulted in an aldehyde intermediate, subsequently confirmed in vitro, which was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid (M1) or reduced to the corresponding alcohol (M3). No parent drug was detected in the urine or bile. Glucuronide conjugate of M3 was also detected in urine and bile, accounting for 5.8 +/- 2.1 and 8.9 +/- 3. 7% of the excreted radioactivity, respectively. Quantitative data obtained from plasma samples suggest that the majority of circulating radioactivity was associated with metabolites. Our results suggest that the long duration of pharmacological activity of SKP-450 (>10 h) is largely attributable to its metabolites. (+info)
(6/1340) Protective effect of the type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram in EAU: protection is independent of IL-10-inducing activity.
PURPOSE: Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a cell-mediated model of retinal autoimmunity that is negatively regulated by interleukin (IL)-10. The antidepressant drug rolipram, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, enhances IL-10 production by monocyte/macrophages. The effect of rolipram on induction of EAU and its associated immunologic responses was investigated. METHODS: Mice were challenged for EAU induction by immunization with the retinal antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) or by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T cells and were treated with rolipram. EAU severity and immunologic responses to IRBP were analyzed. In addition, the effect of rolipram added to the culture on antigen-driven responses of primed lymph node cells was tested. RESULTS: Rolipram treatment from days -1 to 7 after immunization (afferent phase) was not protective, but severity of EAU was reduced to 50% by treatment from days 8 to 16 after immunization or when EAU was induced by adoptive transfer (efferent phase). Antigen-specific proliferation and interferon (IFN)-gamma production ex vivo by lymph node cells of protected mice were not reduced. However, the addition of rolipram directly to the culture suppressed IRBP-driven proliferation and IFN-gamma production by primed lymph node cells. Freshly explanted lymph node cells of treated mice showed inhibition of IFN-gamma mRNA but no parallel enhancement of IL-10 mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Rolipram inhibited EAU in IL-10 knockout mice equally well compared with controls and suppressed their primed lymph node cells in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Rolipram appears to inhibit the expansion and effector function of uveitogenic T cells, raising the possibility that it may be useful for treatment of established disease. Contrary to expectations based on in vitro studies, the protective effects in vivo appear to be independent of IL-10. The observation that suppression of antigen-specific responses is demonstrable only in the physical presence of the drug suggests that, in a clinical setting, continuous administration of rolipram might be needed to sustain its therapeutic effect. (+info)
(7/1340) Disruption of gap junctional communication by the platelet-derived growth factor is mediated via multiple signaling pathways.
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) mediates its cellular functions via activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase followed by the recruitment and activation of several signaling molecules. These signaling molecules then initiate specific signaling cascades, finally resulting in distinct physiological effects. To delineate the PDGF signaling pathway responsible for the disruption of gap junctional communication (GJC), wild-type PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and a series of PDGFRbeta mutants were expressed in T51B rat liver epithelial cells. In cells expressing wild-type PDGFRbeta, PDGF induced disruption of GJC and phosphorylation of a gap junctional protein, connexin-43 (Cx43), which required activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, although involvement of additional factors was also evident. In the F5 mutant lacking binding sites for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, GTPase-activating protein, SHP-2, and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), PDGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinase, but failed to affect GJC or Cx43, indicating involvement of additional signals presumably initiated by one or more of the mutated binding sites. Examination of the single-site mutants revealed that PDGF effects were not mediated via a single signaling component. This was confirmed by the "add-back" mutants, which showed that restoration of either SHP-2 or PLCgamma1 binding was sufficient to propagate the GJC inhibitory actions of PDGF. Further analysis showed that activation of PLCgamma1 is involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, which surprisingly failed to correlate with GJC blockade. The results of our study demonstrate that PDGF-induced disruption of GJC can be mediated by multiple signaling pathways and requires participation of multiple components. (+info)
(8/1340) Lipoprotein(a) stimulates growth of human mesangial cells and induces activation of phospholipase C via pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins.
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is commonly associated with hyperlipidemia and correlates with glomerular accumulation of atherogenic lipoproteins, for example, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and mesangial hypercellularity. Specific binding of Lp(a) to mesangial cells and induction of c-myc and c-fos expression has been demonstrated. Therefore, in this study, we investigated a possible growth stimulatory effect and mode of action of Lp(a) in human mesangial cells. METHODS: Lp(a) was purified from the regenerate fluid of a dextran sulfate column-based low-density lipoprotein apheresis system. Human mesangial cells were isolated by a sequential sieving technique from patients undergoing tumor nephrectomy. DNA synthesis was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by Fura 2-fluorescence, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1,4,5-IP3) concentration was measured by a radioreceptor assay. RESULTS: The data show that Lp(a) bound to the cells with a Kd of 17.0 micrograms/ml and increased DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Lp(a) caused a rapid increase in 1,4,5-IP3 and [Ca2+]i via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 abolished Lp(a)-induced cell proliferation. In contrast, vasopressin-induced increase in 1,4,5-IP3 and [Ca2+]i was pertussis toxin insensitive. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Lp(a) stimulates growth of human mesangial cells. Lp(a)-induced signaling involves binding to a receptor and stimulation of PLC via Gi proteins. Stimulation of PLC appears to be essential for the growth stimulatory effect of Lp(a). Whether these effects of Lp(a) contribute to the pathophysiology of renal disease needs to be determined. (+info)