The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWH8 gene is required for full levels of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum and for efficient N-glycosylation.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cwh8 was previously found to have an anomalous cell wall. Here we show that the cwh8 mutant has an N -glycosylation defect. We found that cwh8 cells were resistant to vanadate and sensitive to hygromycin B, and produced glycoforms of invertase and carboxypeptidase Y with a reduced number of N -chains. We have cloned the CWH8 gene. We found that it was nonessential and encoded a putative transmembrane protein of 239 amino acids. Comparison of the in vitro oligosaccharyl transferase activities of membrane preparations from wild type or cwh8 Delta cells revealed no differences in enzyme kinetic properties indicating that the oligosaccharyl transferase complex of mutant cells was not affected. cwh8 Delta cells also produced normal dolichols and dolichol-linked oligosaccharide intermediates including the full-length form Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. The level of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in cwh8 Delta cells was, however, reduced to about 20% of the wild type. We propose that inefficient N -glycosylation of secretory proteins in cwh8 Delta cells is caused by an insufficient supply of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide substrate. (+info)
Synechocystis sp. slr0787 protein is a novel bifunctional enzyme endowed with both nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and 'Nudix' hydrolase activities.
Synechocystis sp. slr0787 open reading frame encodes a 339 residue polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. Its deduced amino acid sequence shows extensive homology with known separate sequences of proteins from the thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. The N-terminal domain is highly homologous to the archaeal NMN adenylyltransferase, which catalyzes NAD synthesis from NMN and ATP. The C-terminal domain shares homology with the archaeal ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, a member of the 'Nudix' hydrolase family. The slr0787 gene has been cloned into a T7-based vector for expression in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein has been purified to homogeneity and demonstrated to possess both NMN adenylyltransferase and ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activities. Both activities have been characterized and compared to their archaeal counterparts. (+info)
Galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activities in luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and in the rete testis fluid of some mammals.
Galactosyltransferase activity was measured in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis of mice, rats, rabbits, rams and boars, and in the rete testis fluid of rams and boars. The activities of nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, which compete with galactosyltransferase for substrate, were also determined. In these species, galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was similar when the inhibitory effect of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase was minimized by assay conditions. However, under assay conditions that did not minimize the effect of these enzymes, the galactosyltransferase activities of these species were very different and were inversely correlated with the activities of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase. The ratio of galactosyltransferase activity to pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activity was much higher in the rete testis fluid than in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis in both rams and boars. In rams, galactosyltransferase in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was more heat resistant than that in serum. These results suggest that there is a species difference in the availability of galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and that in some species, galactosyltransferase in the luminal fluid is unlikely to have any function. The results are also discussed with respect to the possible function of galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase in epididymal luminal plasma and rete testis fluid. (+info)
MOT1 can activate basal transcription in vitro by regulating the distribution of TATA binding protein between promoter and nonpromoter sites.
MOT1 is an ATPase which can dissociate TATA binding protein (TBP)-DNA complexes in a reaction requiring ATP hydrolysis. Consistent with this observation, MOT1 can repress basal transcription in vitro. Paradoxically, however, some genes, such as HIS4, appear to require MOT1 as an activator of transcription in vivo. To further investigate the function of MOT1 in basal transcription, we performed in vitro transcription reactions using yeast nuclear extracts depleted of MOT1. Quantitation of MOT1 revealed that it is an abundant protein, with nuclear extracts from wild-type cells containing a molar excess of MOT1 over TBP. Surprisingly, MOT1 can weakly activate basal transcription in vitro. This activation by MOT1 is detectable with amounts of MOT1 that are approximately stoichiometric to TBP. With amounts of MOT1 similar to those present in wild-type nuclear extracts, MOT1 behaves as a weak repressor of basal transcription. These results suggest that MOT1 might activate transcription via an indirect mechanism in which limiting TBP can be liberated from nonpromoter sites for use at promoters. In support of this idea, excess nonpromoter DNA sequesters TBP and represses transcription, but this effect can be reversed by addition of MOT1. These results help to reconcile previous in vitro and in vivo results and expand the repertoire of transcriptional control strategies to include factor-assisted redistribution of TBP between promoter and nonpromoter sites. (+info)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR163w gene encodes a diadenosine 5', 5"'-P1,P6-hexaphosphate (Ap6A) hydrolase member of the MutT motif (Nudix hydrolase) family.
The YOR163w open reading frame on chromosome XV of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes a member of the MutT motif (nudix hydrolase) family of enzymes of Mr 21,443. By cloning and expressing this gene in Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae, we have shown the product to be a (di)adenosine polyphosphate hydrolase with a previously undescribed substrate specificity. Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1, P6-hexaphosphate is the preferred substrate, and hydrolysis in H218O shows that ADP and adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate are produced by attack at Pbeta and AMP and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate are produced by attack at Palpha with a Km of 56 microM and kcat of 0.4 s-1. Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P5-pentaphosphate, adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate, and adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate are also substrates, but not diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate or other dinucleotides, mononucleotides, nucleotide sugars, or nucleotide alcohols. The enzyme, which was shown to be expressed in log phase yeast cells by immunoblotting, displays optimal activity at pH 6.9, 50 degrees C, and 4-10 mM Mg2+ (or 200 microM Mn2+). It has an absolute requirement for a reducing agent, such as dithiothreitol (1 mM), and is inhibited by Ca2+ with an IC50 of 3.3 mM and F- (noncompetitively) with a Ki of 80 microM. Its function may be to eliminate potentially toxic dinucleoside polyphosphates during sporulation. (+info)
Functional characterization of Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase in zwitterionic buffers.
Catalysis by Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (E-PPase) was found to be strongly modulated by Tris and similar aminoalcoholic buffers used in previous studies of this enzyme. By measuring ligand-binding and catalytic properties of E-PPase in zwitterionic buffers, we found that the previous data markedly underestimate Mg(2+)-binding affinity for two of the three sites present in E-PPase (3.5- to 16-fold) and the rate constant for substrate (dimagnesium pyrophosphate) binding to monomagnesium enzyme (20- to 40-fold). By contrast, Mg(2+)-binding and substrate conversion in the enzyme-substrate complex are unaffected by buffer. These data indicate that E-PPase requires in total only three Mg2+ ions per active site for best performance, rather than four, as previously believed. As measured by equilibrium dialysis, Mg2+ binds to 2.5 sites per monomer, supporting the notion that one of the tightly binding sites is located at the trimer-trimer interface. Mg2+ binding to the subunit interface site results in increased hexamer stability with only minor consequences for catalytic activity measured in the zwitterionic buffers, whereas Mg2+ binding to this site accelerates substrate binding up to 16-fold in the presence of Tris. Structural considerations favor the notion that the aminoalcohols bind to the E-PPase active site. (+info)
5'-Capping structures of Artemia salina mRNA and the translational inhibition by cap analogs.
The mRNA of the brain shrimp Artemia salina has two types of blocked methylated 5'-terminal structures (caps). About 75% of the mRNA molecules have the 5'-end structure of m7G5'ppp5'-AmpGp and about 25% have the structure of m7G5'ppp5'GmpGp. The only other type of methylated residue found in Artemia mRNA is N6-methyladenosine and which is located at internal positions along the mRNA chain. Translation of Artemia cyst or nauplius poly(A)-rich mRNA in wheat-germ extracts was found to be inhibited by 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate, a chemical analog of the cap, as well as by snythetic caps such as m7G5'ppp5'Gm. On the other hand, the elongation activity on endonegous mRNA in an Artemia cell-free system was not sensitive to 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate. (+info)
Deletion of Ala144-Lys145 in Thermus thermophilus inorganic pyrophosphatase suppresses thermal aggregation.
The regions contributing to the thermostability of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase, EC 184.108.40.206) from Thermus thermophilus (Tth) were deduced in our previous study by random chimeragenesis, one of them being estimated to be Ala144-Lys145 [Satoh, T., Takahashi, Y., Oshida, N., Shimizu, A., Shinoda, H., Watanabe, M., and Samejima, T. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 1531-1536]. Therefore, we investigated the contributions of these two residues in Tth by preparing a deletion mutant (del.144-145 mutant) of Tth PPase. We examined its thermostability in terms of the CD and fluorescence spectra, and the thermal change in the enzymatic activity. The thermostability of the enzymatic activity of the del.144-145 mutant was similar to that of the wild type Tth PPase, whereas this mutant was more stable against heating. Furthermore, we compared the thermal aggregation of the wild type with that of the del.144-145 mutant. We found that the thermal aggregation of the mutant was reduced relative to that of the wild type. Moreover, the molecular weight of the mutant after heating at 90 degrees C was higher than that of the unheated one, whereas the wild type aggregated under the same conditions. Therefore, we can conclude that although the Ala144-Lys145 residues in Tth PPase may partly cause thermal aggregation, the deletion of these residues may stabilize the Tth PPase molecule structurally against heating and suppress thermal aggregation. (+info)