Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety.
Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent. (+info)
Assay for reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage: measurement of the formamido and thymine glycol lesions.
A 32P-postlabeling assay has been developed for the simultaneous detection of the thymine glycol lesion and the formamido remnant of pyrimidine bases in DNA exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The formamido lesion is a principal lesion produced in X-irradiated DNA oligomers when oxygen is available to mediate the damage process. Production of the well-known thymine glycol lesion is less dependent on the concentration of oxygen. These two lesions have the common property that they make the phosphoester bond 3' to the modified nucleoside resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease P1. Our assay uses 32P-postlabeling to measure these lesions in the form of modified dimers obtained from DNA by nuclease P1 digestion. Appropriate carriers and internal standards have been chemically synthesized to improve the reliability and accuracy of the assay. The measurements were accomplished on 1-microgram samples of DNA. (+info)
Bystander effect of purine nucleoside analogues in HSV-1 tk suicide gene therapy is superior to that of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues.
Introduction of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene into tumor cells, followed by the administration of the antiherpes nucleoside analogue ganciclovir has been demonstrated to be effective in eliminating solid tumors in animals. The success of this combination treatment largely depends on the bystander effect, i.e. the killing of nontransfected tumor cells by activated drug carried over from the nearby herpes thymidine kinase (tk) gene-transfected cells. We evaluated the in vitro bystander effect of several antiherpes purine and pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, using a colorimetric assay. All pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, including (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU), showed low, if any, bystander killing effect. In contrast, purine nucleoside analogues, such as ganciclovir, were endowed with a pronounced bystander killer effect. Lobucavir (Cyclobut-G), a ganciclovir analogue, displayed a two- to three-fold more pronounced bystander killer effect than ganciclovir, eliminating, at a concentration of 10 microM, 75% and 90% of a cell population that contained 5% and 10% tk gene-transfected cells, respectively. These findings were corroborated by autoradiographic analysis that showed that 2'-3H-BVDU metabolites formed in the herpes tk gene-transfected tumor cells were much less efficiently incorporated in the DNA of bystander cells than 8-3H-GCV. This indicates that, under the same experimental conditions, BVDU metabolites are less prone to pass the gap junctions than GCV metabolites. (+info)
Identification of amino acid residues responsible for the pyrimidine and purine nucleoside specificities of human concentrative Na(+) nucleoside cotransporters hCNT1 and hCNT2.
hCNT1 and hCNT2 mediate concentrative (Na(+)-linked) cellular uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside drugs by human cells and tissues. The two proteins (650 and 658 residues, 71 kDa) are 72% identical in sequence and contain 13 putative transmembrane helices (TMs). When produced in Xenopus oocytes, recombinant hCNT1 is selective for pyrimidine nucleosides (system cit), whereas hCNT2 is selective for purine nucleosides (system cif). Both transport uridine. We have used (i) chimeric constructs between hCNT1 and hCNT2, (ii) sequence comparisons with a newly identified broad specificity concentrative nucleoside transporter (system cib) from Eptatretus stouti, the Pacific hagfish (hfCNT), and (iii) site-directed mutagenesis of hCNT1 to identify two sets of adjacent residues in TMs 7 and 8 of hCNT1 (Ser(319)/Gln(320) and Ser(353)/Leu(354)) that, when converted to the corresponding residues in hCNT2 (Gly(313)/Met(314) and Thr(347)/Val(348)), changed the specificity of the transporter from cit to cif. Mutation of Ser(319) in TM 7 of hCNT1 to Gly enabled transport of purine nucleosides, whereas concurrent mutation of Gln(320) to Met (which had no effect on its own) augmented this transport. The additional mutation of Ser(353) to Thr in TM 8 converted hCNT1/S319G/Q320M, from cib to cif, but with relatively low adenosine transport activity. Additional mutation of Leu(354) to Val (which had no effect on its own) increased the adenosine transport capability of hCNT1/S319G/Q320M/S353T, producing a full cif-type transporter phenotype. On its own, the S353T mutation converted hCNT1 into a transporter with novel uridine-selective transport properties. Helix modeling of hCNT1 placed Ser(319) (TM 7) and Ser(353) (TM 8) within the putative substrate translocation channel, whereas Gln(320) (TM 7) and Leu(354) (TM 8) may exert their effects through altered helix packing. (+info)
Hydroxyurea potentiates the antiherpesvirus activities of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside and nucleoside phosphonate analogs.
Hydroxyurea has been shown to potentiate the anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities of 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs such as didanosine. We have now evaluated in vitro the effect of hydroxyurea on the antiherpesvirus activities of several nucleoside analogs (acyclovir [ACV], ganciclovir [GCV], penciclovir [PCV], lobucavir [LBV], (R)-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine [H2G], and brivudin and nucleoside phosphonate analogs (cidofovir [CDV] and adefovir [ADV]). When evaluated in cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays, hydroxyurea by itself had little effect on CPE progression and potentiated in a subsynergistic (herpes simplex virus type 1 [HSV-1]) to synergistic (HSV-2) fashion the antiviral activities of ACV, GCV, PCV, LBV, H2G, ADV, and CDV. Hydroxyurea also caused marked increases in the activities of ACV, GCV, PCV, LBV, and H2G (compounds that depend for their activation on a virus-encoded thymidine kinase [TK]) against TK-deficient (TK(-)) HSV-1. In fact, in combination with hydroxyurea the 50% effective concentrations of these compounds for inhibition of TK(-) HSV-1-induced CPE decreased from values of 20 to > or = 100 microg/ml (in the absence of hydroxyurea) to values of 1 to 5 microg/ml (in the presence of hydroxyurea at 25 to 100 microg/ml). When evaluated in a single-cycle virus yield reduction assay, hydroxyurea at a concentration of 100 microg/ml inhibited progeny virus production by 60 to 90% but had little effect on virus yield at a concentration of 25 microg/ml. Under these assay conditions hydroxyurea still elicited a marked potentiating effect on the antiherpesvirus activities of GCV and CDV, but this effect was less pronounced than that in the CPE reduction assay. It is conceivable that the potentiating effect of hydroxyurea stems from a depletion of the intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools, thus favoring the triphosphates of the nucleoside analogues (or the diphosphates of the nucleoside phosphonate analogues) in their competition with the natural nucleotides at the viral DNA polymerase level. The possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (+info)
Elaboration of pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures.
Pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases were released rapidly by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures when incubated under certain culture conditions having no adverse affect on their viability or morphology. Nucleosidase production was not restricted to any particular type of lymphoblastoid line; enzymes with a high level of activity were elaborated by cells of cultures initiated from healthy subjects and patients with uncontrolled lymphocytic or myelocytic leukemia, as well as by cells of cultures exhibiting mostly B- or T-cell properties. Tritiated thymine and uracil, which were not incorporated to any appreciable extent by DNA- and RNA-synthesizing cells, were identified by paper chromatography as the primary products arising from nucleosidase degradation of radiolabeled thymidine, uridine, and cytidine. Neither adenosine nor guanosine was catabolized. These heat-labile and ultraviolet-sensitive enzymes with a molecular weight of 5 to 10 X 10(4) did not affect the viability, morphology, or proliferation of lymphocytes in mitogenactivated cultures, lymphoblastoid cells in long-term cultures, or fibroblasts in monolayer cultures. (+info)
Rapid screening of high-risk patients for disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism using HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of liquid urine or urine-soaked filter paper strips.
BACKGROUND: A rapid and specific screening method for patients at risk of inherited disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism is desirable because symptoms are varied and nonspecific. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and specific method for screening with use of liquid urine samples or urine-soaked filter paper strips. METHODS: Reverse-phase HPLC was combined with electrospray ionization (ESI), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and detection performed by multiple reaction monitoring. Transitions and instrument settings were established for 17 purines or pyrimidines. Stable-isotope-labeled reference compounds were used as internal standards when available. RESULTS: Total analysis time of this method was 15 min, approximately one-third that of conventional HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Recoveries were 96-107% in urine with added analyte, with two exceptions (hypoxanthine, 64%; xanthine, 79%), and 89-110% in urine-soaked filter paper strips, with three exceptions (hypoxanthine, 65%; xanthine, 77%; 5-hydroxymethyluracil, 80%). The expected abnormalities were easily found in samples from patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, adenylosuccinase deficiency, or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: HPLC-ESI MS/MS of urine allows rapid screening for disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. The filter paper strips offer the advantage of easy collection, transport, and storage of the urine samples. (+info)
Preclinical toxicity and efficacy study of a 14-day schedule of oral 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose as a prodrug for 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine radiosensitization in U251 human glioblastoma xenografts.
In anticipation of an initial clinical Phase I trial in patients with high-grade gliomas of p.o. administered 5-iodo2-pyrimidinone-2'-deoxyribose (IPdR) given daily for 14 days as a prodrug for 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR)-mediated tumor radiosensitization, we determined the systemic toxicities and the percentage IUdR-DNA incorporation in normal athymic mouse tissues and a human glioblastoma xenograft (U251) after this dosing schedule of IPdR. Using a tumor regrowth assay of s.c. U251 xenografts, we also compared radiosensitization with this IPdR-dosing schedule to radiation therapy (XRT) alone (2 Gy/day for 4 days) or to XRT after continuous infusion IUdR for 14 days at the maximum tolerated dose in mice (100 mg/kg/day). Athymic mice with and without U251 s.c. xenografts tolerated 750 or 1500 mg/kg/day of p.o. IPdR (using gastric lavage) for 14 days without weight loss or activity level changes during treatment and for a 28-day posttreatment observation period. The percentage IUdR-DNA incorporation in U251 tumor cells was significantly higher after p.o. IPdR (750 and 1500 mg/kg/day) for 14 days (3.1 +/- 0.2% and 3.7 +/- 0.3%, respectively) than continuous infusion IUdR for 14 days (1.4 +/- 0.1%). Compared to XRT alone, a significant sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) was found with the combination of p.o. IPdR (1500 mg/kg/d) + XRT (SER = 1.31; P = 0.05) but not for the combination of continuous infusion IUdR + XRT (SER = 1.07; P = 0.57) in the U251 xenografts. The percentage IUdR-DNA incorporation after IPdR at 1500 mg/kg/day for 14 days in normal bone marrow, normal small intestine, and normal liver were 1.2 +/-0.2%, 3.3 +/- 0.3%, and 0.2 +/- 0.1%, respectively. We conclude that a 14-day p.o. schedule of IPdR at up to 1500 mg/kg/day results in no significant systemic toxicity in athymic mice and is associated with significant radiosensitization using this human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft model. Based on these data and our previously published data using shorter IPdR dosing schedules, which also demonstrate an improved therapeutic index for IPdR compared to IUdR, an initial clinical Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of p.o. IPdR daily for 14 days is being designed. (+info)