The molecular structure of Rv2074, a probable pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, at 1.6 angstroms resolution. (9/43)

The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein corresponding to open reading frame Rv2074 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been solved by the two-wavelength anomalous dispersion method. Refinement of the molecular structure at 1.6 angstroms resolution resulted in an R(work) of 0.178 and an R(free) of 0.204. The crystal asymmetric unit contains an Rv2074 monomer; however, the crystallographic twofold symmetry operation of space group P4(3)2(1)2 generates dimeric Rv2074. Each monomer folds into a six-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel flanked by two alpha-helices. The three-dimensional structure of Rv2074 is very similar to that of Mtb Rv1155, a probable pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPOx), which corroborates well with the relatively high sequence similarity (52%) between the two. A structural comparison between Rv2074 and Rv1155 revealed that the core structure (a six-stranded beta-barrel) is also well conserved; the major differences between the two lie in the N- and C-termini and in the small helical domain. Two citric acid molecules were observed in the active site of Rv2074, the crystals of which were grown in 0.2 M sodium citrate buffer pH 5.0. The citric acid molecules are bound to Rv2074 by hydrogen-bonding interactions with Thr55, Gln60 and Lys61. One of the two citric acid molecules occupies the same spatial position that corresponds to the position of the phosphate and ribose sugar moieties of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the Mtb Rv1155-FMN, Escherichia coli PNPOx-FMN and human PNPOx-FMN complex structures. Owing to its extensive structural similarity with Mtb Rv1155 and to the E. coli and human PNPOx enzymes, Rv2074 may be involved in the final step in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; a vitamin B6).  (+info)

Identification of a pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) 5'-phosphate oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana. (10/43)

Pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) 5'-phosphate oxidase (PPOX) catalyzes the oxidative conversion of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) or pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). The At5g49970 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana shows homology to PPOX's from a number of organisms including the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDX3 gene. A cDNA corresponding to putative A. thaliana PPOX (AtPPOX) was obtained using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and primers landing at the start and stop codons of At5g49970. The putative AtPPOX is 530 amino acid long and predicted to contain three distinct parts: a 64 amino acid long N-terminal putative chloroplast transit peptide, followed by a long Yjef_N domain of unknown function and a C-terminal Pyridox_oxidase domain. Recombinant proteins representing the C-terminal domain of AtPPOX and AtPPOX without transit peptide were expressed in E. coli and showed PPOX enzyme activity. The PDX3 knockout yeast deficient in PPOX activity exhibited sensitivity to oxidative stress. Constructs of AtPPOX cDNA of different lengths complemented the PDX3 knockout yeast for oxidative stress. The role of the Yjef_N domain of AtPPOX was not determined, but it shows homology with a number of conserved hypothetical proteins of unknown function.  (+info)

Vitamer levels, stress response, enzyme activity, and gene regulation of Arabidopsis lines mutant in the pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PDX3) and the pyridoxal kinase (SOS4) genes involved in the vitamin B6 salvage pathway. (11/43)

PDX3 and SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE4 (SOS4), encoding pyridoxine/pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase and pyridoxal kinase, respectively, are the only known genes involved in the salvage pathway of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in plants. In this study, we determined the phenotype, stress responses, vitamer levels, and regulation of the vitamin B(6) pathway genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants mutant in PDX3 and SOS4. sos4 mutant plants showed a distinct phenotype characterized by chlorosis and reduced plant size, as well as hypersensitivity to sucrose in addition to the previously noted NaCl sensitivity. This mutant had higher levels of pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate than the wild type, reflected in an increase in total vitamin B(6) observed through HPLC analysis and yeast bioassay. The sos4 mutant showed increased activity of PDX3 as well as of the B(6) de novo pathway enzyme PDX1, correlating with increased total B(6) levels. Two independent lines with T-DNA insertions in the promoter region of PDX3 (pdx3-1 and pdx3-2) had decreased PDX3 activity. Both also had decreased activity of PDX1, which correlated with lower levels of total vitamin B(6) observed using the yeast bioassay; however, no differences were noted in levels of individual vitamers by HPLC analysis. Both pdx3 mutants showed growth reduction in vitro and in vivo as well as an inability to increase growth under high light conditions. Increased expression of salvage and some of the de novo pathway genes was observed in both the pdx3 and sos4 mutants. In all mutants, increased expression was more dramatic for the salvage pathway genes.  (+info)

Vitamin B6 related epilepsy during childhood. (12/43)

In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled without an extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes. Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrations in the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder occurs in neonates with hypophosphatasia and congenital rickets. All patients with these conditions present with early-onset epilepsy that is resistant to conventional antiepileptic medications. Patients with three of the conditions respond to any form of vitamin B6. Only those with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency respond to PLP instead of pyridoxine. Interestingly, the authors have successfully treated many patients without the above four disorders using vitamin B6, and have found that the treatment was more effective with PLP than with pyridoxine, though the mechanism is not known. Since PLP is as inexpensive as pyridoxine, we suggest replacing PLP for pyridoxine when treating children with epilepsy.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis. (13/43)


Catalytic and regulatory properties of native and chymotrypsin-treated pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase. (14/43)

Brain pyridoxine-5-P oxidase is activated by the tryptophan metabolites 3-hydroxyanthranilate and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 3-Hydroxyanthranilate at concentrations of 0.03 mM relieves the inhibition elicited by accumulation of the substrate pyridoxine-5-P (Ki = 60 microM). The results of fluorometric measurements indicate that four molecules of 3-hydroxyanthranilate bind to the dimeric enzyme (56 kDa) with an association constant of 5.5 x 10(4) M-1. Differential spectral measurements failed to detect any direct interaction between the cofactor FMN and the effector 3-hydroxyanthranilate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the effector molecules bind to sites of the dimeric protein distinct from the cofactor site. Limited chymotrypsin digestion of pyridoxine-5-P oxidase yields catalytically active species that are no longer susceptible to activation by 3-hydroxykynurenine. A polypeptide of 16 kDa containing FMN and endowed with full catalytic activity was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. It is postulated that the structural domain associated with catalytic activity composes approximately one-half of the molecular mass of pyridoxine-5-P oxidase (28 kDa), whereas the remaining portion of the macromolecule contains regulatory binding sites.  (+info)

Erythrocyte pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase activity: a potential biomarker of riboflavin status? (15/43)


Molecular basis of reduced pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase catalytic activity in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy disorder. (16/43)