Sterol uptake induced by an impairment of pyridoxal phosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cloning and sequencing of the PDX3 gene encoding pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase. (41/43)

Exogenous sterols do not permeate wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic conditions. However, mutant strain FKerg7, affected in lanosterol synthase, is a sterol auxotroph which is able to grow aerobically in the presence of ergosterol. Viability of this strain depends on the presence of an additional mutation, aux30, that leads to sterol permeability. Cells bearing the aux30 mutation fail to grow in standard yeast nitrogen base medium containing pyridoxine but grow normally if pyridoxine is replaced by either pyridoxal or pyridoxamine. These mutants are characterized by a lack in pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase [P(N/M)P oxidase] (EC activity. The pleiotropic phenotype induced by the aux30 mutation includes a strong perturbation in amino acid biosynthesis. Strains bearing the aux30 mutation also display atypic fatty acid, sterol, and cytochrome patterns. Transformation of an aux30 strain with a replicative vector carrying the wild-type PDX3 gene encoding P(N/M)P oxidase restored wild-type fatty acid, sterol, and cytochrome patterns and suppressed exogenous sterol accumulation. It is proposed that sterol permeation of aux30 strains in mainly the consequence of their leaky Hem- character. The amino acid sequence of S. cerevisiae P(N/M)P oxidase inferred from the nucleotide sequence of PDX3 shows a high percentage of homology with the corresponding enzymes from Escherichia coli and Myxococcus xanthus. Several putative Gcn4p binding sequences are present in the PDX3 promoter region, leading to the assumption that transcription of this gene is under the general control of nitrogen metabolism.  (+info)

Low red blood cell glutathione reductase and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase activities not related to dietary riboflavin: selection by malaria? (42/43)

This study was designed to confirm that low dietary riboflavin does not contribute to the flavin-deficient red blood cells commonly found in subjects in Ferrara Province, northern Italy. In this area it is primarily an inherited characteristic believed to have been selected for by malaria, which was endemic from the 12th century. In parallel with assessment of daily riboflavin intake (DRI), flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutathione reductase (EGR) and flavin mononucleotide-dependent pyridoxine phosphate oxidase (PPO) were measured in beta-thalassemic heterozygotes, their normal relatives, and normal spouses (representative of the normal population). In all of these groups there is a high incidence of deficiency of these flavin enzymes. We found that the majority had an adequate riboflavin intake and there was no significant correlation of EGR and PPO activities with DRI. Thus, interpretation of low EGR activity is discussed with reference to studies of EGR done to detect nutritional riboflavin deficiency in countries where there is malnutrition and endemic malaria.  (+info)

Isolation of a pdxJ point mutation that bypasses the requirement for the PdxH oxidase in pyridoxal 5' -phosphate coenzyme biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. (43/43)

We isolated 26 suppressor mutations that allowed growth of a delta pdxH::omega null mutant in the absence of pyridoxal. Each suppressor mapped to pdxJ, and the eight suppressors sequenced contained the same glycine-to-serine change in the PdxJ polypeptide. This bypass suppression suggests that PdxJ may participate in formation of the pyridine ring of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate.  (+info)