Update on interconversions of vitamin B-6 with its coenzyme.
Biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) depends upon the relatively specific action of two consecutive enzymes, viz. pyridoxal (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine) kinase and pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase. Less specific phosphatases catalyze hydrolyses of the 5'-phosphates of the vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine. From the recognition a generation ago of these processes by which the three forms of vitamin B-6 and their 5'-phosphates are interconverted, more recent studies have provided a fairly sophisticated understanding of the molecular characteristics of the enzymes involved. The evolutionary retention of homologous portions of pyridoxal kinase in humans as well as bacteria and the most recent finding of a highly conserved region of the pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase, also from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, emphasize the importance of these catalysts in the formation of a coenzyme that is essential for most organisms. Both kinase and oxidase involved in B-6 metabolism are potential targets for pharmacologic agents. (+info)
X-ray structure of Escherichia coli pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase complexed with FMN at 1.8 A resolution.
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPOx) catalyzes the terminal step in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), a cofactor used by many enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism. The enzyme oxidizes either the 4'-hydroxyl group of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or the 4'-primary amine of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) to an aldehyde. PNPOx is a homodimeric enzyme with one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) molecule non-covalently bound to each subunit. A high degree of sequence homology among the 15 known members of the PNPOx family suggests that all members of this group have similar three-dimensional folds. RESULTS: The crystal structure of PNPOx from E. coli has been determined to 1.8 A resolution. The monomeric subunit folds into an eight-stranded beta sheet surrounded by five alpha-helical structures. Two monomers related by a twofold axis interact extensively along one-half of each monomer to form the dimer. There are two clefts at the dimer interface that are symmetry-related and extend from the top to the bottom of the dimer. An FMN cofactor that makes interactions with both subunits is located in each of these two clefts. CONCLUSIONS: The structure is quite similar to the recently deposited 2.7 A structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PNPOx and also, remarkably, shares a common structural fold with the FMN-binding protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris and a domain of chymotrypsin. This high-resolution E. coli PNPOx structure permits predictions to be made about residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis. These predictions provide testable hypotheses, which can be answered by making site-directed mutants. (+info)
Structure and mechanism of Escherichia coli pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase.
Escherichia coli pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPOx) catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), forming pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). This reaction serves as the terminal step in the de novo biosynthesis of PLP in E. coli and as a part of the salvage pathway of this coenzyme in both E. coli and mammalian cells. Recent studies have shown that in addition to the active site, PNPOx contains a noncatalytic site that binds PLP tightly. The crystal structures of PNPOx with one and two molecules of PLP bound have been determined. In the active site, the PLP pyridine ring is stacked almost parallel against the re-face of the middle ring of flavin mononucleotide (FMN). A large protein conformational change occurs upon binding of PLP. When the protein is soaked with excess PLP an additional molecule of this cofactor is bound about 11 A from the active site. A possible tunnel exists between the two sites. Site mutants were made of all residues at the active site that make interactions with the substrate. Stereospecificity studies showed that the enzyme is specific for removal of the proR hydrogen atom from the prochiral C4' carbon of PMP. The crystal structure and the stereospecificity studies suggest that the pair of electrons on C4' of the substrate are transferred to FMN as a hydride ion. (+info)
Structure and properties of recombinant human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase.
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase catalyzes the terminal step in the synthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The cDNA for the human enzyme has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified human enzyme is a homodimer that exhibits a low catalytic rate constant of approximately 0.2 sec(-1) and K(m) values in the low micromolar range for both pyridoxine 5'phosphate and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is an effective product inhibitor. The three-dimensional fold of the human enzyme is very similar to those of the E. coli and yeast enzymes. The human and E. coli enzymes share 39% sequence identity, but the binding sites for the tightly bound FMN and substrate are highly conserved. As observed with the E. coli enzyme, the human enzyme binds one molecule of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate tightly on each subunit. (+info)
Characterization of the complex pdxH-tyrS operon of Escherichia coli K-12 and pleiotropic phenotypes caused by pdxH insertion mutations.
We report the first molecular genetic analysis of a pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, the PdxH gene product of Escherichia coli K-12. Chromosomal insertions in and around pdxH were generated with various transposons, and the resulting phenotypes were characterized. The DNA sequence of pdxH was determined, and the promoters of pdxH and the downstream gene tyrS, which encodes tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, were mapped by RNase T2 protection assays of chromosomal transcripts. These combined approaches led to the following conclusions: (i) pdxH is transcribed from a sigma 70-type promoter and shares its transcript with tyrS; (ii) tyrS is additionally transcribed from a relatively strong, nonconventional internal promoter that may contain an upstream activating sequence but whose expression is unaffected by a fis mutation; (iii) PdxH oxidase is basic, has a molecular mass of 25,545 Da, and shares striking homology (greater than 40% identity) with the developmentally regulated FprA protein of Myxococcus xanthus; (iv) mild pyridoxal 5'-phosphate limitation of pdxH mutants inhibits cell division and leads to formation of unsegregated nucleoids; (v) E. coli PdxH oxidase is required aerobically and anaerobically, but second-site suppressors that replace pdxH function entirely can be isolated; and (vi) pdxH mutants excrete significant amounts of L-glutamate and a compound, probably alpha-ketoisovalerate, that triggers L-valine inhibition of E. coli K-12 strains. These findings extend earlier observations that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes are often members of complex, multifunctional operons. Our results also show that loss of pdxH function seriously disrupts cellular metabolism in unanticipated ways. (+info)
Genomic organization, tissue distribution and deletion mutation of human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase.
We used a combined computer and biochemical approach to characterize human pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO). The human PNPO gene is composed of seven exons and six introns, and spans approximately 8 kb. All exon/intron junctions contain the gt/ag consensus splicing site. The absence of TATA-like sequences, the presence of Sp1-binding sites and more importantly, the presence of CpG islands in the regulatory region of the PNPO gene are characteristic features of housekeeping genes. Northern blot analyses showed two species of poly(A)(+) RNA of approximately 2.4 and approximately 3.4 kb at identical intensity, whereas Western blot analysis showed that no protein isoform exists in any of the tissues examined. PCR-based analysis led to the idea that two messages are transcribed from a single copy gene, and that the size difference is due to differential usage of the polyadenylation signal. The major sites of PNPO expression are liver, skeletal muscle and kidneys while a very weak signal was detected in lung. The mRNA master dot-blot for multiple human tissues provided a complete map of the tissue distribution not only for PNPO but also for pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxal phosphatase. The data indicate that mRNA expression of all three enzymes essential for vitamin B(6) metabolism is ubiquitous but is highly regulated at the level of transcription in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, human brain PNPO cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the roles of both the N- and C-terminal regions were studied by creating sequential truncation mutants. Our results showed that deletion of the N-terminal 56 residues affects neither the binding of coenzyme nor catalytic activity. (+info)
Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in the PNPO gene encoding pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase.
In the mouse, neurotransmitter metabolism can be regulated by modulation of the synthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and failure to maintain pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) levels results in epilepsy. This study of five patients with neonatal epileptic encephalopathy suggests that the same is true in man. Cerebrospinal fluid and urine analyses indicated reduced activity of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and other PLP-dependent enzymes. Seizures ceased with the administration of PLP, having been resistant to treatment with pyridoxine, suggesting a defect of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO). Sequencing of the PNPO gene identified homozygous missense, splice site and stop codon mutations. Expression studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that the splice site (IVS3-1g>a) and stop codon (X262Q) mutations were null activity mutations and that the missense mutation (R229W) markedly reduced pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase activity. Maintenance of optimal PLP levels in the brain may be important in many neurological disorders in which neurotransmitter metabolism is disturbed (either as a primary or as a secondary phenomenon). (+info)
Tat-mediated protein transduction of human brain pyridoxine-5-P oxidase into PC12 cells.
Pyridoxine-5-P oxidase catalyses the terminal step in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal-5-P, the biologically active form of vitamin B6 which acts as an essential cofactor. Here, a human brain pyridoxine-5-P oxidase gene was fused with a gene fragment encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain (RKKRRQRRR) in a bacterial expression vector to produce a genetic in-frame Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase fusion protein. Expressed and purified Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase fusion protein transduced efficiently into PC12 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when added exogenously to culture media. Once inside the cells, the transduced Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase protein showed catalytic activity and was stable for 48 h. Moreover, the formation of pyridoxal-5-P was increased by adding exogenous Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase to media pre-treated with the vitamin B6 precursor pyridoxine. In addition, the intracellular concentration of pyridoxal-5-P was markedly increased when Tat-pyridoxal kinase was transduced together with Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase into cells.These results suggest that the transduction of Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase fusion protein presents a means of regulating the level of pyridoxal-5-P and of replenishing this enzyme in various neurological disorders related to vitamin B6. (+info)