A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors.
A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials. (+info)
A multicenter phase II trial of losoxantrone (DuP-941) in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer.
Our purpose in this study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of losoxantrone (DuP-941), an anthrapyrazole, in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen ablation therapy without demonstrable antiandrogen withdrawal response were treated with losoxantrone 50 mg/m2 i.v. bolus every 21 days. All of the patients had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before study entry and had no prior chemotherapy. Forty-three assessable patients were entered. The median age was 70.6 years (range, 53.9-85.9), median Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), 70% (50-90%), and the median serum PSA, 173 microg/liter (12.5-11,140). The median number of courses was 4 (1-9). Five patients (25%) had a partial response as defined by >50% decline in the serum PSA. Two of nine patients with measurable disease had partial responses and three had minor responses. Thirty percent of patients had improvement in KPS and 37% had an improvement in symptoms with decrease in pain and/or decrease in analgesic requirement. Nonhematological grade 3 and 4 toxicities were one each of grade 3 headache, grade 4 hypocalcemia, grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia, and grade 3 dyspnea. Twenty-six patients (60%) had grade 3 or 4 absolute neutropenia. In conclusion, losoxantrone demonstrated a partial biochemical response rate of 25%, response in measurable disease sites in 22%, and improvement in clinical symptoms in one-third of patients. In this study, PSA increase was not necessarily associated with lack of palliative response. (+info)
DNA-interactive anticancer aza-anthrapyrazoles: biophysical and biochemical studies relevant to the mechanism of action.
The physicochemical and DNA-binding properties of anticancer 9-aza-anthrapyrazoles (9-aza-APs) were investigated and compared with the carbocyclic analogs losoxantrone (LX) and mitoxantrone (MX). Unlike their carbocyclic counterparts, the tested 9-aza-APs do not undergo self-aggregation phenomena. The pyridine nitrogen at position 9, missing in the carbocyclic derivatives, is involved in protonation equilibria at physiological pH. In addition, 9-aza-APs are electrochemically reduced at a potential intermediate between LX and MX. These data fully agree with quantum mechanical calculations. Binding to nucleic acids was examined by spectroscopic, chiroptical, and DNase I footprinting techniques as a function of ionic strength and base composition. The 9-aza-APs exhibit prominent affinity for DNA, with an important electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy. A very remarkable sequence preference pattern dramatically favors GC steps in double-helical DNA, whereas the carbocyclic reference compounds show a substantially lower selectivity for GC. A common DNA complexation geometry, considerably differing from that of MX, characterizes all anthrapyrazoles. Hence, bioisosteric substitution and ring-hydroxy deletion play an important role in defining the physicochemical properties and in modulating the affinity of anthrapyrazoles for the nucleic acid, the geometry of the intercalation complex, and the sequence specific contacts along the DNA chain. Drug stimulation of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage is remarkably attenuated in the aza-bioisosteric derivatives, suggesting that other non-enzyme-mediated cytotoxic mechanism(s), possibly connected with free radical production, are responsible for efficient cell killing. The biophysical and biochemical properties exhibited by 9-aza-APs contribute to clarifying the peculiar pharmacological profile of this family of compounds. (+info)
Elimination pathways of [14C]losoxantrone in four cancer patients.
Losoxantrone is an anthrapyrazole derivative in Phase III development in the U.S. for solid tumors, notably breast cancer. To obtain information on the routes of elimination of the drug, a study was conducted in four patients with advanced solid tumors, which involved intravenous administration of 100 microCi of [14C]losoxantrone for a total dose of 50 mg/m(2) during the first course of losoxantrone therapy. Blood, urine, and feces were collected for up to 2 weeks and were analyzed for total radioactivity and parent drug. In addition, feces were profiled for the presence of metabolites. Plasma concentrations of total radioactivity exhibited a temporal pattern similar to the parent drug. Combined recovery of administered total radioactivity from urine and feces was 70% with the majority (87%) of this radioactivity excreted in the feces, presumably via biliary excretion. Feces extracts were profiled for metabolites using a high-performance liquid chromatography method developed to separate synthetic standards of previously identified human urinary metabolites. Only intact losoxantrone was found in the feces. About 9% of the dose was excreted in the urine, primarily during the first 24 h and mostly in the form of parent compound. Collectively, these data indicate that fecal excretion of unmetabolized drug via biliary and/or intestinal excretion is the primary pathway of intravenously administered losoxantrone elimination in cancer patients with refractory solid tumors. (+info)
Limited-sampling strategy models for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters of 4-methylaminoantipyrine, an active metabolite of dipyrone.
Bioanalytical data from a bioequivalence study were used to develop limited-sampling strategy (LSS) models for estimating the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA), an active metabolite of dipyrone. Twelve healthy adult male volunteers received single 600 mg oral doses of dipyrone in two formulations at a 7-day interval in a randomized, crossover protocol. Plasma concentrations of MAA (N = 336), measured by HPLC, were used to develop LSS models. Linear regression analysis and a "jack-knife" validation procedure revealed that the AUC(0-infinity) and the Cmax of MAA can be accurately predicted (R2>0.95, bias <1.5%, precision between 3.1 and 8.3%) by LSS models based on two sampling times. Validation tests indicate that the most informative 2-point LSS models developed for one formulation provide good estimates (R2>0.85) of the AUC(0-infinity) or Cmax for the other formulation. LSS models based on three sampling points (1.5, 4 and 24 h), but using different coefficients for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax, predicted the individual values of both parameters for the enrolled volunteers (R2>0.88, bias = -0.65 and -0.37%, precision = 4.3 and 7.4%) as well as for plasma concentration data sets generated by simulation (R2>0.88, bias = -1.9 and 8.5%, precision = 5.2 and 8.7%). Bioequivalence assessment of the dipyrone formulations based on the 90% confidence interval of log-transformed AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax provided similar results when either the best-estimated or the LSS-derived metrics were used. (+info)
SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase.
Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a stress-activated protein kinase that can be induced by inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxin, osmotic shock, UV radiation, and hypoxia. We report the identification of an anthrapyrazolone series with significant inhibition of JNK1, -2, and -3 (K(i) = 0.19 microM). SP600125 is a reversible ATP-competitive inhibitor with >20-fold selectivity vs. a range of kinases and enzymes tested. In cells, SP600125 dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun, the expression of inflammatory genes COX-2, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and prevented the activation and differentiation of primary human CD4 cell cultures. In animal studies, SP600125 blocked (bacterial) lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited anti-CD3-induced apoptosis of CD4(+) CD8(+) thymocytes. Our study supports targeting JNK as an important strategy in inflammatory disease, apoptotic cell death, and cancer. (+info)
Phase I study of the combination of losoxantrone and cyclophosphamide in patients with refractory solid tumours.
Losoxantrone is a DNA intercalator that was developed with the potential to replace anthracyclines. The recommended single agent dose of losoxantrone is 50 mg m(-2) every 3 weeks. We conducted a phase I study of losoxantrone and a fixed dose of cyclophosphamide on a q3 weekly schedule. Forty-nine patients were enrolled, of which 46 were evaluable for toxicity. The dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenia at the maximum tolerable losoxantrone dose of 45 mg m(-2). With granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support, significant further dose escalation of losoxantrone was achieved. Cardiotoxicity was seen with cumulative dosing. Pharmacokinetics of losoxantrone revealed linear kinetics and triphasic clearance, with significant interpatient variability. No objective responses were seen in this study. Neutropenia was dose-limiting in this combination with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. The recommended dose for further testing is cyclophosphamide 500 mg m(-2) followed by losoxantrone 95 mg m(-2) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. (+info)
The oxidative biotransformation of losoxantrone (CI-941).
The oxidative biotransformation of the anticancer drug 7-hydroxy-2-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-5-[[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]a mino]anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one dihydrochloride (losoxantrone, CI-941) after incubation of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes has been investigated. The structures of twelve losoxantrone metabolites have been elucidated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional NMR. In these mammalian hepatocytes, the CI-941 biotransformation includes a monohydroxylation of the phenolic substructure of the CI-941-chromophore via cytochrome P450 catalysis, resulting in metabolites having an ortho- and para-hydroquinonoid substructure, respectively. The identification of a glutathione conjugate as a follow-up metabolite confirms the oxidative activation of the ortho-hydroxylated losoxantrone metabolite. The oxidative activation establishes the ability of CI-941 to form covalent bonds to intracellular nucleophilic targets. Furthermore, the CI-941 metabolism was shown to be extremely suppressed in rat hepatocytes incubated with metyrapone. In contrast to these results, human tumor HepG2 cells did not show any CI-941 biotransformation after incubation. (+info)