Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis.
The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM. (+info)
Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride.
The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process. (+info)
Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China.
BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans. (+info)
Effects of dexamethasone, ibuprofen, and ligustrazini on lipopolysaccharides-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production.
AIM: To study the influence of dexamethasone (Dex), ibuprofen (Ibu), and ligustrazini (Lig) on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene expression (both mRNA and protein). METHODS: TNF alpha in supernatants of human whole blood was measured by ELISA; The TNF alpha mRNA was assessed by slot blot analysis. RESULTS: LPS-induced TNF alpha production was in a dose-dependent manner. TNF alpha levels in the whole blood increased markedly at 3 h and peaked at 6 h. The induction of TNF alpha mRNA was very rapid, peaking at 2 h after LPS challenge. Dex exerted inhibitory effects on TNF alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Ibu and Lig had 2-phase effects on TNF alpha release. CONCLUSION: Dex, Ibu, and Lig affected TNF alpha gene expression, so they may be new approaches of anti-TNF alpha for treatment of sepsis. (+info)
Inhibition of carbohydrate-mediated glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide secretion by circulating non-esterified fatty acids.
Two studies were performed to assess the entero-insular axis in simple obesity and the possible effect of variations in the level of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on one of the components of the entero-insular axis, glucagon-like peptide-1 [(7-36) amide]. In the first study, we compared the entero-pancreatic hormone response to oral carbohydrate in obese and lean women. Obese subjects demonstrated hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance but this was not associated with an increased secretion of either glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). These findings therefore provide no support for the hypothesis that overactivity of the entero-insular axis contributes to the hyperinsulinaemia seen in obesity. Indeed, the plasma GLP-1 response to carbohydrate was markedly attenuated in obese subjects, confirming previous observations. In the second study, in which carbohydrate-stimulated GLP-1 responses were again evaluated in obese and lean women, circulating NEFA levels were modulated using either heparin (to increase serum NEFA) or acipimox (to reduce serum NEFA). Treatment with acipimox resulted in complete suppression of NEFA levels and in a markedly higher GLP-1 response than the response to carbohydrate alone or to carbohydrate plus heparin. We suggest that higher fasting and postprandial NEFA levels in obesity may tonically inhibit nutrient-mediated GLP-1 secretion, and that this results in attenuation of the GLP-1 response to carbohydrate. However, although serum NEFA levels post-acipimox were similarly suppressed in both lean and obese subjects, the GLP-1 response was again significantly lower in obese subjects, suggesting the possibility of an intrinsic defect of GLP-1 secretion in obesity. The reduction of GLP-1 levels in obesity may be important both in relation to its insulinotropic effect and to its postulated role as a satiety factor. (+info)
The flavin environment in old yellow enzyme. An evaluation of insights from spectroscopic and artificial flavin studies.
Spectroscopic and chemical modification studies of modified flavins bound to old yellow enzyme have led to predictions about the flavin environment of this enzyme. These studies analyzed solvent accessibility and hydrogen bonding patterns of particular flavin atoms, in addition to suggesting amino acid residues that are in close proximity to those atoms. Here, these studies are evaluated in the light of the crystal structure of old yellow enzyme to reveal that the spectroscopic and modified flavin results are generally consistent with the crystal structure. This highlights the fact that these are useful methods for studying flavin binding site structure. Although several of the inferred properties of the flavin environment are not consistent with the crystal structure, these discrepancies occurred in cases where an incorrect choice was made from among multiple plausible explanations for an experimental result. We conclude that modified flavin studies are powerful probes of flavin environment; however, it is risky to specify details of interactions, especially because of uncertainties due to induced charge delocalization in the flavin. (+info)
Chemiluminescent detection of oxidants in vascular tissue. Lucigenin but not coelenterazine enhances superoxide formation.
Lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence has frequently been used to assess the formation of superoxide in vascular tissues. However, the ability of lucigenin to undergo redox cycling in purified enzyme-substrate mixtures has raised questions concerning the use of lucigenin as an appropriate probe for the measurement of superoxide production. Addition of lucigenin to reaction mixtures of xanthine oxidase plus NADH resulted in increased oxygen consumption, as well as superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c, indicative of enhanced rates of superoxide formation. Additionally, it was revealed that lucigenin stimulated oxidant formation by both cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and isolated rings from rat aorta. Lucigenin treatment resulted in enhanced hydrogen peroxide release from endothelial cells, whereas exposure to lucigenin resulted in inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortic rings that was superoxide dismutase inhibitable. In contrast, the chemiluminescent probe coelenterazine had no significant effect on xanthine oxidase-dependent oxygen consumption, endothelial cell hydrogen peroxide release, or endothelium-dependent relaxation. Study of enzyme and vascular systems indicated that coelenterazine chemiluminescence is a sensitive marker for detecting both superoxide and peroxynitrite. (+info)
Molecular basis for hepatic detoxifying enzyme induction by 2-(allylthio)pyrazine in rats in comparison with oltipraz: effects on prooxidant production and DNA degradation.
The expression of hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by 2-(allylthio)pyrazine (2-AP), an experimental chemopreventive agent, was investigated in rats. Northern blot analysis revealed that 2-AP caused increases in mEH, rGSTA2/3/5, and rGSTM1/2 mRNA levels. mEH and rGSTA2 proteins were also induced. Molecular basis of the enzyme induction by 2-AP was studied in comparison with oltipraz (Olt). Rats exposed to buthionine sulfoximine, a GSH-depleting agent, before treatment with either 2-AP or Olt exhibited greater increases in the mRNA levels than the individual treatment. Conversely, increases of the mRNAs were prevented by cysteine treatment, indicating that metabolic intermediates or reactive oxygens produced from the agents could be reduced by cysteine. Gel shift analysis revealed that nuclear factor-kappaB, which is associated with the altered cellular redox state, was not activated by the agents. Effects of these agents on the breakage of phix-174 DNA were compared in vitro. 2-AP effectively reduced the conversion of supercoiled DNA to the open circular form induced by benzenetriol and prevented benzenetriol- and iron-catalyzed degradation of DNA, whereas Olt failed to prevent strand breakage of DNA. These results provided evidence that: 1) 2-AP was effective in elevating the hepatic mEH and GST gene expression in rats, which might be mediated with the production of reactive oxygen species; 2) nuclear factor-kappaB activation was not involved in the induction of the detoxifying enzymes by either 2-AP or Olt in spite of their production of reactive oxygens in vivo; and 3) the antioxidant effect of 2-AP in vitro differed from that of Olt. (+info)