(1/973) The covalent attachment of polyamines to proteins in plant mitochondria.
Plant mitochondria from both potato and mung bean incorporated radioactivity into acid insoluble material when incubated with labelled polyamines (spermine, spermidine and putrescine). Extensive washing of mitochondrial precipitates with trichloroacetic acid and the excess of cold polyamine failed to remove bound radioactivity. Addition of nonradioactive polyamine stopped further incorporation of radioactivity but did not release radioactivity already bound. The radioactivity is incorporated into the membrane fraction. The labelling process has all the features of an enzymatic reaction: it is long lasting with distinctive kinetics peculiar to each polyamine, it is temperature dependent and is affected by N-ethylmaleimide. The latter inhibits the incorporation of putrescine but stimulates the incorporation of spermine and spermidine. Treatment of prelabelled mitochondria with pepsin releases bound radioactivity thus indicating protein to be the ligand for the attachment of polyamines. HPLC of mitochondrial hydrolysates revealed that the radioactivity bound to mitochondria is polyamines; traces of acetyl polyamines were also found in some samples. On autoradiograms of SDS/PAGE gels several radioactive bands of proteins were detected. Protein sequencing of labelled spots from a 2D gel gave a sequence which was 60% identical to catalase. We suggest that the attachment of polyamines to mitochondrial proteins occurs cotranslationally possibly via transglutaminases. (+info)
(2/973) Inducing effect of diamines on transcription of the cephamycin C genes from the lat and pcbAB promoters in Nocardia lactamdurans.
The diamines putrescine, cadaverine, and diaminopropane stimulate cephamycin biosynthesis in Nocardia lactamdurans, in shake flasks and fermentors, without altering cell growth. Intracellular levels of the P7 protein (a component of the methoxylation system involved in cephamycin biosynthesis) were increased by diaminopropane, as shown by immunoblotting studies. Lysine-6-aminotransferase and piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities involved in biosynthesis of the alpha-aminoadipic acid precursor were also greatly stimulated. The diamine stimulatory effect is exerted at the transcriptional level, as shown by low-resolution S1 protection studies. The transcript corresponding to the pcbAB gene and to a lesser extent also the lat transcript were significantly increased in diaminopropane-supplemented cultures, whereas transcription from the cefD promoter was not affected. Coupling of the lat and pcbAB promoters to the reporter xylE gene showed that expression from the lat and pcbAB promoters was increased by addition of diaminopropane in Streptomyces lividans. Intracellular accumulation of diamines in Nocardia may be a signal to trigger antibiotic production. (+info)
(3/973) In vitro synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors modified with N-acetylputrescine by Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelle envelope membranes.
The photosynthetic organelles (cyanelles) of the protist Cyanophora paradoxa are surrounded by a peptidoglycan wall, modified through amidation with N-acetylputrescine. Cyanelle envelope membrane preparations were shown to catalyze the lipid-linked steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis as well as the putrescinylation and subsequent acetylation, occurring at the stage of lipid I and/or lipid II. (+info)
(4/973) Inhibition of polyamine synthesis induces p53 gene expression but not apoptosis.
The nuclear phosphoprotein p53 acts as a transcription factor and is involved in growth inhibition and apoptosis. The present study was designed to examine the effect of decreasing cellular polyamines on p53 gene expression and apoptosis in small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells. Cells were grown in DMEM containing 5% dialyzed fetal bovine serum in the presence or absence of alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, for 4, 6, and 12 days. The cellular polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in DFMO-treated cells decreased dramatically at 4 days and remained depleted thereafter. Polyamine depletion by DFMO was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of the p53 gene. The p53 mRNA levels increased 4 days after exposure to DFMO, and the maximum increases occurred at 6 and 12 days after exposure. Increased levels of p53 mRNA in DFMO-treated cells were paralleled by increases in p53 protein. Polyamines given together with DFMO completely prevented increased expression of the p53 gene. Increased expression of the p53 gene in DFMO-treated cells was associated with a significant increase in G1 phase growth arrest. In contrast, no features of programmmed cell death were identified after polyamine depletion: no internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was observed, and no morphological features of apoptosis were evident in cells exposed to DFMO for 4, 6, and 12 days. These results indicate that 1) decreasing cellular polyamines increases expression of the p53 gene and 2) activation of p53 gene expression after polyamine depletion does not induce apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells. These findings suggest that increased expression of the p53 gene may play an important role in growth inhibition caused by polyamine depletion. (+info)
(5/973) Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study of metabolism of propionate by Escherichia coli.
We have evaluated the use of [1,2-13C2]propionate for the analysis of propionic acid metabolism, based on the ability to distinguish between the methylcitrate and methylmalonate pathways. Studies using propionate-adapted Escherichia coli MG1655 cells were performed. Preservation of the 13C-13C-12C carbon skeleton in labeled alanine and alanine-containing peptides involved in cell wall recycling is indicative of the direct formation of pyruvate from propionate via the methylcitrate cycle, the enzymes of which have recently been demonstrated in E. coli. Additionally, formation of 13C-labeled formate from pyruvate by the action of pyruvate-formate lyase is also consistent with the labeling of pyruvate C-1. Carboxylation of the labeled pyruvate leads to formation of [1,2-13C2]oxaloacetate and to multiply labeled glutamate and succinate isotopomers, also consistent with the flux through the methylcitrate pathway, followed by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Additional labeling of TCA intermediates arises due to the formation of [1-13C]acetyl coenzyme A from the labeled pyruvate, formed via pyruvate-formate lyase. Labeling patterns in trehalose and glycine are also interpreted in terms of the above pathways. The information derived from the [1, 2-13C2]propionate label is contrasted with information which can be derived from singly or triply labeled propionate and shown to be more useful for distinguishing the different propionate utilization pathways via nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. (+info)
(6/973) Endogenous apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in genomic DNA of mammalian tissues.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are one of the most frequent lesions in DNA. Using a highly sensitive slot blot assay, we determined the number and condition of endogenous AP sites in normal tissues of rats and human liver. The number of AP sites (50,000-200,000 per mammalian cell) was greatest in brain, followed by colon and heart, and then liver, lung, and kidney. The majority of endogenous AP sites were cleaved 5' to the AP site. These data suggest that removal of the deoxyribosyl phosphate moiety is the rate-limiting step in base excision and AP site repair in vivo. (+info)
(7/973) Recombinant anti-polyamine antibodies: identification of a conserved binding site motif.
Polyamines are small linear polycations found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells. They are involved in nucleic acid and protein synthesis and rises in cellular polyamine levels have been correlated with cell proliferation. Antibodies to these molecules have potential as prognostic indicators of disease conditions and indicators of treatment efficacy. Antipolyamine monoclonal antibodies of differing but defined specificities have been generated in our laboratory using polyamine ovalbumin conjugates as immunogens. These antibodies show small but significant cross reactivities with other polyamine species; IAG-1 cross reacts with spermidine (8%), JAC-1 with spermine (6%) and JSJ-1 with both putrescine (11%) and spermine (6%). We have rescued and sequenced the heavy and light chain variable regions of all three of these antibodies. While the light chains of two antibodies, IAG-1 and JSJ-1, were 93% homologous at the amino acid level, none of the heavy chains displayed any significant sequence homology. However, computer-generated models of all three antibody binding sites revealed a three-dimensionally conserved polyamine binding site motif. The polyamine appears to bind into a negatively charged cleft lined with acidic and polar residues. The cleft is partially or completely closed at one end and the specificity of the interaction is determined by placement of acidic residues in the cleft. Aromatic residues contribute to polyamine binding interacting with the carbon backbone. The polyamine-binding motif we have identified is very similar to that observed in the crystal structure of PotD, the primary receptor of the polyamine transport system in Escherichia coli. (+info)
(8/973) A novel function for transglutaminase 1: attachment of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides to involucrin by ester bond formation.
Transglutaminases (TGases) are defined as enzymes capable of forming isopeptide bonds by transfer of an amine onto glutaminyl residues of a protein. Here we show that the membrane-bound form of the TGase 1 enzyme can also form ester bonds between specific glutaminyl residues of human involucrin and a synthetic analog of epidermal specific omega-hydroxyceramides. The formation of a approximately 5-nm-thick lipid envelope on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes is an important component of normal barrier function. The lipid envelope consists of omega-hydroxyceramides covalently linked by ester bonds to cornified envelope proteins, most abundantly to involucrin. We synthesized an analog of natural omega-hydroxyceramides N-[16-(16-hydroxyhexadecyl)oxypalmitoyl]sphingosine (lipid Z). When recombinant human TGase 1 and involucrin were reacted on the surface of synthetic lipid vesicles containing lipid Z, lipid Z was attached to involucrin and formed saponifiable protein-lipid adducts. By mass spectroscopy and sequencing of tryptic lipopeptides, the ester linkage formation used involucrin glutamine residues 107, 118, 122, 133, and 496 by converting the gamma-carboxamido groups to lipid esters. Several of these residues have been found previously to be attached to ceramides in vivo. Mass spectrometric analysis after acetonide derivatization also revealed that ester formation involved primarily the omega-hydroxyl group of lipid Z. Our data reveal a dual role for TGase 1 in epidermal barrier formation and provide insights into the pathophysiology of lamellar ichthyosis resulting from defects of TGase 1 enzyme. (+info)